Loading...

Exploring New Sources of Viral Resistance in Cowpea Germplasm and Its Elaboration through Multivariate Analysis

DOI: 10.18805/LR-591    | Article Id: LR-591 | Page : 673-678
Citation :- Exploring New Sources of Viral Resistance in Cowpea Germplasm and Its Elaboration through Multivariate Analysis.Legume Research.2021.(44):673-678
M.S. Iqbal, S.A. Hussain, N. Arshad, S. Munir, M.A. Ali, H. Masood, A. Ghafoor drsajjad.iqbal@uog.edu.pk
Address : Plant Genetic Resources Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Submitted Date : 24-09-2020
Accepted Date : 2-02-2021

Abstract

Background: Cowpea is a major food legume rich in protein but its production has been dwindling by several factors including viral infection due to various virus strains in all agro-ecological zones.
Methods: Sixty eight cowpea genotypes were screened against qualitative traits (leaf shape, seed surface, twinning tendency, anthocynin pigment, plant type, fodder type and cream color) and four seed borne viruses viz. cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (CABMV), black eye cowpea mosaic virus (BlCMV) and bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) under both in situ and laboratory conditions using DAC-ELISA.
Result: Based on in situ screening, 16 genotypes were found resistant to all the four viruses, whereas for ELISA, 13 genotypes (27005, 27041, 27075, 27141, 27145, 27146, 27147, 27158, 27160, 27167, 27172, IT85F-1380 and IT86D-719) were found resistant to all. Twelve clusters were obtained from UPGMA based on disease severity. Genotype 27008 (Pakistan) was present in cluster VI and was susceptible to all antisera CMV, CABMV, BICMV and BCMV. Whereas 13 genotypes were present in cluster VIII which were found resistant to all the four antisera applied. Therefore, 13 genotypes suggested for safe use in any breeding program at developing resistant cultivars. First two factors obtained through PCA with eigen-values >1 contributed > 80 per cent variability. Twelve distinct groups were observed and these were in coordination with cluster analysis.

Keywords

Cluster analysis CMV Cowpea Seed borne viruses

References

  1. Al-Saady, N.A., Nadaf, S.K., Al-Lawati, A.H., Al-Hinai, S.A. (2018). Germplasm collection and seed diversity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]. Asian J. Agri. Food Sci. 6(4): 129-139.
  2. Arshad, M., Bashir, M., Sharif, A. and Malik, B.A. (1998). Inheritance of resistance in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] to black eye cowpea mosaic potyvirus. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 30: 263-270.
  3. Bar-Joseph, M. and Garnsey, S.M. (1981). Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA): Principles and applications for diagnosis of plant viruses. In: Plant Disease and Vectors Ecology Epidemiology. [Maramorosch, K., Harris, K.F. (eds.)]. Academic Press. New York. 35-39.
  4. Bashir, M., Hampton, R.O. (1996). Sources of genetic resistance in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] to cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 102: 411-419.
  5. Bashir, M., Iqbal, M.S., Ghafoor, A., Ahmad, Z. and Qureshi, A.S. (2002). Variability in cowpea germplasm for reaction to virus infection under field conditions. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 34(1): 47-48. 
  6. Bashir, M., Ahmad, Z. and Murata, N. (2000). Seed Borne Viruses: Detection, Identification and Control. Agha Jee Printers, Islamabad, Pakistan, 156.
  7. Boahen, S.K., Savala, C.E.N., Chikoye, D. and Abaidoo, R. (2017). Growth and yield responses of cowpea to inoculation and phosphorus fertilization in different environments. Frontiers in Plant Science. 8: 1-13.
  8. Byoung-Cheorl, K., Yeam, I., Jahn, M.M. (2005). Genetics of plant virus resistance. Annual Reviews of Phytopathology. 43: 581-621.
  9. Carvalho, M., Neto, T.L., Rosa, E. and Carnide, V. (2017). Cowpea: a legume crop for a challenging environment. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 97: 4273-4284.
  10. Clark, M.F. and Adams A.N. (1977). Characteristics of the microplate method of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. Journal of General Virology. 34: 475-483.
  11. Fraser, R.S.S. (1992). The genetics of plant-virus interactions: implications for plant breeding. Euphytica. 63: 175-185.
  12. Haruna, I.M. and Usman, A. (2013). Agronomic efficiency of cowpea varieties [Vigna unguiculata (L). Walp] under varying phosphorus rates in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Crop Science. 5: 209-215.
  13. Iqbal, M.S., Qureshi, A.S., Ghafoor, A. and Qayyum, A. (2003). Identification of superior genotypes based on morphological, physiological and agronomic traits in local and exotic cowpea germplasm. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 35(1): 69-77. 
  14. Iqbal, M.S., Ghafoor, A., Fatima, S., Akhtar, S., Akbar, M. and Saddiqi, E.H. (2017). Tracking agronomic diversity in land races of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers] collected from Pakistan. Pure and Applied Biology. 6(4): 1260-1268.
  15. Iqbal, M.S., Akbar, M., Akhtar, S., Fatima, S. and Ghafoor, A. (2021). Multivariate Analysis and Its Application for Characterizing Cowpea Landraces. Legume Research. 44(1): 1-7. DOI: 10.18805/LR-489.
  16. Orawu, M., Melis, R., Laing, M. and Derera, J. (2012). Genetic inheritance of resistance to cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in cowpea. Euphytica. 0756-3.
  17. Pio-Riberio, G., Wyatt, S.D., and Kuhn, C.W. (1978). Interaction of two viruses. Phytopathology. 68: 1260-1265.
  18. Rybicki, E., Pietersen, G. (1999). Plant virus disease problems in the developing world. Advances in Virus Research. 53: 128-175.
  19. Salem, N.M., Ehlers, J.D., Roberts, P.A. and Ng, J.C.K. (2010). Biological and molecular diagnosis of seed borne viruses in cowpea germplasm of geographically diverse sub-Saharan origins. Plant Pathology. 59(4): 773-784.
  20. Shoyinka, S.A., Thottappilly, G., Adebayo, G.G., Anno-Nyako, F.O. (1997). Survey on cowpea virus incidence and distribution in Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management. 43: 127-132.
  21. VanDan Heuvel, J.F.J.M. and Peters, D. (1989). Improved detection of potato leaf roll viruses in plant material and aphids. Phytopathology. 79: 963-967.
  22. Xiong, H., Shi, A., Mou, B., Qin, J., Motes, D., Lu, W., Ma, J., Weng, Y., Yang, W., Wu, D. (2016). Genetic diversity and population structure of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]. PLoS One. 11(8): e0160941.

Global Footprints