DOI: 10.5958/0976-0571.2014.00691.2    | Article Id: LR-2893 | Page : 651-657
Harpreet Kaur, Poonam Sharma*, Navprabhjot Kaur and Balwinder Singh Gill poonam1963in@yahoo.co.in
Address : Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India.


Experiment was conducted to investigate native Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer sp. isolates for their functional traits in soybean. Soybean rhizobial isolates were tested for their ability to produce indole acetic acid (IAA) both in the presence and absence of precursor L- tryptophan. A low amount of IAA was produced by all isolates in the absence of L- tryptophan, which ranged from 7.96- 19.26 µg
ml-1. In the presence of L- tryptophan (0.01%) the amount of IAA produced by all isolates was found to be increased (12.89-30.90 µg ml-1). Maximum IAA was produced by Ensifer sp. LSER 8 (30.90 µg ml-1) followed by LSER 7 (28.58 µg ml-1). The maximum phosphate solubilization (Po4-3) was observed with LSER 8 (6.59 mg 100 ml-1) on 12th day. Maximum resistance of 66.7% was recorded with tetracycline (30 µg disc-1). Ensifer sp. were sensitive to more antibiotics than Bradyrhizobium sp. Three isolates of Bradyrhizobium sp. (LSBR 3) and Ensifer sp. (LSER 7 and LSER 8) and SB 271 and DS 1 were evaluated for plant infectivity test and were found effective on root nodulation and total nitrogen content. The use of effective rhizobia as biofertilizer could be highly sustainable practice for soybean cultivation.


Bradyrhizobium sp. Ensifer sp. Indole acetic acid Phosphate solubilization Soybean


  1. Albareda, M., Rodrigues, D.N. and Temprano, F.J. (2009) Use of Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii for soybean [Glycine max (L.)] inoculants in South Spain. Eur J Agri 30: 205-211.
  2. Alikhani, H.A., Saleh, R.N. and Antoun, H. (2006) Phosphate solubilization activity of rhizobia native to Iranian soils. Pl Soil 287: 35-41.
  3. Appunu, C., Sasirekha, N., Ramalingam, V., Prabavathy. and Nair, S. (2009) A significant proportion of indigenous rhizobia from India associated with soybean (Glycine max L.) distinctly belong to Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer genera. Biol Fertil Soils 47:56-63.
  4. Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M., Sherris, J.C. and Turck, M. (1966) Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Amer J Clin Pathol 45: 493-496.
  5. Boddey, L.H. and Hungria, M. (1997) Phenotypic grouping of Brazilian Bradyrhizobium strains which nodulate soybean. Biol Fertil Soils 25: 407-15.
  6. Chen, Y.P., Rekha, P.D., Arunshen, A.B., Lai, W.A. and Young, C.C. (2006) Phosphate solubilizing bacteria from subtropical soil and their tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities. Appl Soil Ecol 34:33-41.
  7. Etesami, H., Alikhani, H.A., Jadidi, M. and Aliakbari, A. (2009) Effect of superior IAA producing rhizobia on N, P, K uptake by wheat grown under greenhouse condition. J World App Sci 6: 1629-1633.
  8. Gorden, S.A. and Weber, R.P. (1951) Calorimetric estimation of IAA. Pl Physoil 26: 192-195.
  9. Jackson, M.L. (1973) Phosphorous determination for soils.In: Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentica Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi India Pp 134-82.
  10. Kang, S.C., Hat, C.G., Lee, T.G. and Maheshwari, D.K. (2002) Solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphates by a soil-inhabiting fungus Fomitopsis sp. PS 102. Curr Sci 82:439-442.Kaur, H., Sharma, P., Kaur, N. and Gill, B.S. (2012) Phenotypic and biochemical characterization of Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer spp. isolated from soybean rhizosphere. Biosci Discov 3:40-46
  11. Keyser, H.H. and Li, F. (1992) Potential for increasing biological nitrogen fixation in soybean. Pl Soil 141: 119-135.
  12. Khan, M.S., Zaidi, A. and Wani, P.A. (2006) Role of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in sustainable agriculture-A review. Agron Sustain Dev 26: 1-15.
  13. McKenzie, H.A. and Wallace, H.A. (1954) The kjeldahl determination of nitrogen. Aust J Chem 16: 55-79
  14. Nautiyal, C.S. (1999) An efficient microbiological growth medium for screening phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. FEMS Microbiol Lett 170: 265–270.
  15. Okereke, G.U., Onochie, G., Onukwo, A. and Onyeagba, E. (2001) Effectiveness of foreign bradyrhizobia strains in enhancing nodulation, dry matter and seed yield of soybean [G. max (L.) Merr.] cultivars in Nigeria. Biol Fert Soils 33: 3-9.
  16. Pikovaskaya, R.I. (1948) Mobilization of phosphate dissolving bacteria in rhizosphere of some cultivated legumes. Pl Soil 35:127-132.
  17. Roy, M. and Basu, P.S. (2004) Studies on root nodules of leguminous plants bioproduction of indole acetic acid by a Rhizobium sp. from a twiner Clitoria ternatea L. Acta Biotechnol 12: 453-460.
  18. Sharma, M.P., Srivastava, K. and Sharma, S.K. (2010) Biochemical characterization and metabolic diversity of soybean rhizobia isolated from Malwa region of Central India. Pl Soil Environ 56: 375–383.
  19. Sridevi, M. and Mallaiah, K.V. (2007) Bioproduction of indole acetic acid by Rhizobium strains isolated from root nodules of green manure crop, Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.Short communication. Iranian J Biotechnol 5: 178-182.
  20. Somasegaran, P. and Hoben, H.J. (1985) Methods in legumes Rhizobium, Technology. University of Howai NifTA2 Project Resources. College of tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Paia Mavi, Hawai pp.367.
  21. Stanier, R.Y., Adelberg, E.A. and Ingrahom, J. (1976) The Microbial World, Pp 65 and 82. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
  22. Tas, E., Leinonen, P., Saano, A., Rasanen, I.A., Kaijalainen, S., Piipola, S., Hakola, S. and Lindstrom, K. (1996) Assessment of competitiveness of Rhizobia infecting Galega orientalis on the basis of plant yield, nodulation and strain identification by antibiotics resistance and PCR. Environ Microbiol 62: 529-535.
  23. Yanni, Y., Rizk, R., Abd-El Fattah, F., Squartini, A., Corich, V., de Bruijn, F., Rademaker, J., Maya-Flores, J., Ostrom, P., Vega- Hernandez, M., Hollingsworth, R., Martinez-Molina, E., Mateos, P., Velazquez, E., Wopereis, J., Triplett, E., Umali-Garcia, U., Rolfe, B., Ladha, J.K., Hill, J. and Dazzo, F.B. (2001) The beneficial plant growth-promoting association of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii with rice roots. Aust J Pl Physiol
  24. 28: 845–870.
  25. Zahir, Z.A., Shah, M.K., Naveed, M. and Akhtar, M.J. (2010) Substrate dependent auxin production by Rhizobium phaseoli improve the growth and yield of Vigna radiate L. under salt stress conditions. J Microbiol Biotech 20: 1288-1294.
  26. Zarie, M., Salih-Rastin., Alikhani, H.A.Q. and Aliasgharzadeh, N. (2006) Response of lentil to co-inoculation with phosphate solubilizing rhizobial strains and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. J Pl Nutr 29: 1509-1522.

Global Footprints