Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, volume 42 issue 1 (march 2023) : 26-30

Effect of Feeding Fermented Rice Bran by Rumen Liquor on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

Muhammad Ashiqul Alam1,*, Md. Shahidur Rahman Khan2, Khan Md. Shaiful Islam3
1Department of Microbiology and Public Health, Khulna Agricultural University, Khulna, Bangladesh.
2Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh.
3Department of Animal Nutrition, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh.
Cite article:- Alam Ashiqul Muhammad, Khan Rahman Shahidur Md., Islam Shaiful Md. Khan (2023). Effect of Feeding Fermented Rice Bran by Rumen Liquor on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens . Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 42(1): 26-30. doi: 10.18805/ajdfr.DRF-273.
Background: Broiler feedstuff as Rice bran (RB) is a by-product of rice industry. Using RB in broiler chicken diets is not common, especially in broiler chicken production systems due to limitations like higher content of fiber and lower availability of micronutrients. Fermentation of RB by rumen inoculate would improve the nutritive value and further inclusion of urea as a non-protein nitrogenous substance would increase the microbial population using nitrogen generated from urea. 

Methods: RB was fermented anaerobically without or with urea (2.0%) by rumen inoculates for 48 hours. Three isonitrogenous (22.75% CP) and isocaloric (3164 kcal/kg) diets contained 7.0% RB, 7.0% fermented RB (FRB) and 7.0% urea (2.0%) added fermented RB (UFRB) formulated. The total number of 90-day old unsexed broiler chicks distributed in 03 groups considering 30 replicate birds in each. 

Result: True protein content increased in FRB (16.45%) and UFRB (16.85%) in comparison to RB group (16.27%). Final body weight of RB, FRB and UFRB groups 1129, 1152 and 1190 g/bird. Feed intake 1884, 1828 and 1924 g/bird respectively for RB, FRB and UFRB groups. Feed conversion ratio 1.75, 1.66 and 1.69 for RB, FRB and UFRB groups respectively. Dressing Percentage of Carcass yield is higher in UFRB (73%) than in FRB (70%). No mortality occurred in any groups during the experiment. So, it may be concluded that inclusion of fermented rice bran by rumen inoculate increase the performance of broiler but urea (2.0%) added to fermented rice bran by rumen inoculate shows better growth performance and carcass yield of broiler.
Rice bran (RB) is a byproduct of rice milling process which constitutes about 40.0% of paddy rice (Dafwang and Damang, 1995). It contains high levels of protein, lipids, vitamins B and E, trace minerals (Warren and Farrell, 1990) and good source of lysine and methionine (Gallardo et al., 2020). However, its utilization especially for monogastric animals is limited. The inclusion of rice bran at more than 7.5% (normal level) in broiler ration reduced performance (Tangendjaja, 1993). Nutritionally, several factors limit its use in poultry diet like presence of unavailable phosphorous as phytate and hull adulteration (Farrell, 1994; Warren and Farrell, 1990). Its high fibre content more than 13%. RB has been neglected as poultry feed and non-ruminant animals (Sharif et al., 2014; Taylor et al., 2021). But it would be a promising feed ingredient if those limitations would be eliminated by some processing technique. Fermentation of RB using rumen inoculates would be one of the most promising techniques, because it produce various enzymes such as α-amylase, α-acetolactate, decarboxylase, β-endoglucanase,  hemicellulase, phytase, maltogenic amylase and xylanase which degrade fiber (Diaz, 2008; Wizna et al., 2009) and reduced crude fiber from RB (Wizna et al., 2012). The addition of inorganic source of nitrogen such as urea to the fermentation medium increase crude protein (Supriyati and kompiang, 2002; Supriyati et al., 2015; Mu et al., 2011). Because treated RB has beneficial effect on growth performance, feed efficiency, protein digestibility, energy utilization and mineral retention of broiler chickens as a direct hydrolytic effect on phytate (Khan et al., 2013). B. amyloliquefaciens induced fermentation process increases the availability of nutrients in raw materials and their metabolic activity (Supriyati et al., 2015). The previous researchers had attempted to use fermentation technique (Wizna et al., 2012), enzymes supplementation (Tirajoh et al., 2010) and inclusion of the fermented product (Tangendjaja, 1993; Kompiang et al., 1995) in increasing RB utilization for poultry feed.

Rumen bacterial inoculum can be an alternative approach to optimize the use of RB in poultry feeding. Cellulolytic Ruminococcus albus can effectively reduce fiber and increase crude protein (CP) with the supplementation of urea (3.0% w/w) and molasses (5.0% w/w) (Bryant et al., 1961; Gado et al., 2007) that improves digestibility, weight gain and feed efficiency (Djibrillou et al., 1998). In the present study was designed to ferment RB by rumen inoculates with addition of 2.0% urea for desirable chemical changes which was confirmed by a feeding trial in broiler.  
The experiment was conducted in 2019-20 in the Department of Animal Nutrition, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh. 
Fermentation of rice bran and experimental diet
Rumen liquor was collected from a mature cow during slaughter and filtered using cheesecloth. Filtered rumen liquor was diluted 1:1 ratio with buffer (9.8 g NaHCO3, 0.04 g CaCO3, 0.47 g NaCl, 0.57 g KCl, 3.3 g Na2HPO4, 0.12 g MgSO4.7H2O in 1 liter carbonated distilled water). The fluid was kept in a beaker where it continuously carbon di-oxide was flowed to maintain anaerobic conditions. One group considered only diluted rumen inoculates and in another group diluted rumen inoculate with 2% urea. The inoculated RB fermented for 48 hours anaerobically in a plastic container at 39oC. Fermented RB was dried under sunlight. CP, CF and Amino Acid were analyzed before and after fermentation by AOAC (2005). Three types of isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets contained 7.0% rice bran (RB), 7.0% fermented rice bran (FRB) and 7.0% urea fermented rice bran (UFRB) were formulated (Table 1).

Table 1: Formulation of feed and composition of experimental diets.

Management of birds
A total number of 90-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were assigned to the study. All the birds were divided into three groups (RB, FRB and UFRB) in a completely randomized design having 3 replications of 30 birds. Feed and water were available ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Chicks were housed in wire-netted battery cages with mesh grate floors above the excreta collection tray. Birds were vaccinated for Newcastle Disease-Infectious Bronchitis (ND-IB) at 7 days and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) at 14th day of age. All the birds have equal access to feed and water. Feed offered, feed left over and feed refusal recorded weekly.
Chemical analysis
The proximate analysis of ingredients and experimental feed were measured by AOAC (2005) and amino acid using HPLC at Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR). The crude protein content was measured by macrokjehdahl digestion unit using Kjeltec 1030 Autoanalyzer.
Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis for fermented RB was compared by experimental data was performed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (Duncan, 1955) using computer Excel program and SPSS and conducted to determine the differences among the treatment means (Steel and Torrie, 1980).
Chemical changes
UFRB (18.55%) and FRB (12.78%) contain higher Crude Protein than RB (13.48%) after fermentation (Fig 1). These results agreed with Supriyati et al., (2015), who described an increased CP content of RB from 12.1 to 13.4% due to microbial fermentation. A NPN compound urea is well known to improve the metabolism as well as to increase the CP contents of rice milling waste (Wizna et al., 2012). In this study, a significant increase in CP content of RB treated with rumen liquor in combination with 2% urea increased CP content of RB, which might have contributed to the increased growth and proliferation of Bacteria in the rumen liquor. 

Fig 1: Crude protein changes.

In this study, amino acid contents were significantly increased by 5% and 44% in FRB and UFRB groups, respectively, indicating an absolute increase in the amino acid contents, either urea was added or not. The amino acid profile was sharply higher in the UFRB group. Oshoma et al., (2005) agreed that fermented RB contains high protein value and a balanced amino acid composition. Stevenson (1978) observed that the amino acids were excreted during the active growth of the rumen Bacteria. Ranjan et al., (2018) found that deoiled RB fermented with Rhizopus oryzae resulted in a nearly six-fold increase in lysine content and saturated fatty acid content. Itou et al., (2000) and Chang et al., (1992) found increase the composition of free amino acids in fermented RB. In this study, it was observed that fermentation resulted in an increase in the amounts of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, alanine, valine and leucine and low molecular peptides in comparison to unfermented RB (Fig 2). Khin et al., (2011); Yunus et al., (2015) supported that major component cellulose in the RB is the best for the growth of microorganisms. Sukaryana, (2001) found that the production of single cell protein biomass increases the crude protein of rice bran with the addition of urea in the UFRB using bacteria. Wizna et al., (2012) found that B. amyloliquefaciens as an inoculum improved fermentation and its microbial population. Supriyati and Kompiang, (2002) agreed with the results of the present experiment as protein content increased when urea was added.

Fig 2: Changes of amino acids (%) content. N.B: RB-Rice bran; FRB-Fermented rice bran; UFRB-Urea fermented rice bran.

Growth performance
In this study, live weight gain and feed consumption of broiler in UFRB were significantly increased (p<0.05) but feed conversion ratio was low in FRB group of birds (Table 2). Kubad et al., (1997) reported that fermented products were more palatable compared to the original materials because fermentation produces some good flavors and water-soluble vitamins such as B1, B2 and B12 and minerals that also support the results of the present experiment as feed consumption was maximum in UFRB group than RB group. Kanget_al(2015) also found the same result using 10.0% FRB in broiler diet. 

Table 2: Live weight (g/bird), live weight gain (g/bird) performance feed intake (g/bird) and feed conversion ratio of birds.

In Table 1, CP and metabolizable energy (ME) contents in the diets were equalized. The difference in ME content between all diets would not affect the performances of broiler chickens during this feeding trial. Olomu and Offiong (1980) found that the different protein (20% and 23%) and energy levels (3,000 and 3,200 kcal/kg) in the diets did not affect the performance of broiler chickens.

The fermented RB diets gave different levels of CF among all diets (Table 1), resulting in different CF consumption. Gonzalez-Alvarado et al., (2007) reported that the feed consumption of broiler chicks fed with diets containing different levels of CF (2.5% up to 3.4%) differed significantly during the 14 to 21 days. Mateos et al., (2002) reported that the inclusion of fiber in the diet (below 5%) might be of benefit in terms of nutrient digestibility and growth performance in broilers. In this study, the increased feed consumption in the presence of UFRB with decrease CF (3.76%) in the diets compared to the control RB (4.12%) and FRB (4.05%) diet, might also be due to a more acceptable flavor after fermentation.
According to Kahlon et al. (2009) and Ryan et al. (2011),  improved growth performance (live weight gain and feed conversion ratio) of broiler may be due to high concentrations of protein, vitamin, minerals, phospholipids, essential fatty acids and more than 120 antioxidants are present in fermented RB. LactobacillusSaccharomyces and Bacillus are present in rumen inoculate. This fermented RB are used as feed ingredients all the microbes get access to enter the digestive tract of broiler and serve as a probiotic that enhances the live weight gain in broiler (Nakphaichit et al., 2011, Salim et al., 2013, Jeong and Kim, 2014) that supports the result of the present experiment as live weight was high in both fermented rice bran (FRB and UFRB) group supplemented with or without urea in the fermentation process (Table 2).
Carcass traits
Carcass traits are not affected by the addition of FRB and RB. Only dressing percentage (carcass yield) was high in UFRB (73%) of birds than another group of bird (Table 3). Lesson et al., 2000 reported that physiological condition and content of nutrients in feed and genetic factors are affecting the carcass weight of broiler. Mujahid et al., (2003) reported that RB containing feed increases in organ weights of broiler chicks.

Table 3: Carcass characteristics of birds.

RB was fermented by rumen inoculum increased live weight gain and feed conversion efficiency of the broiler, which was further increased when urea was added during fermentation. But this study needs to repeat for confirmation in other species and different sources of RB. Based on this research work, it might be helpful if future works are continued on the industry-scale production of fermented RB by rumen liquor.
The author acknowledged the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany for financial support to conduct the study under the Research Group Linkage program. This study was carried out in the Department of Animal Nutrition, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh. 

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