Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, volume 36 issue 4 (december 2017) : 310-315

An investigation on fermentative changes during the production of food bio-colours through solid state fermentation of broken rice by Monascus purpureus (MTCC 410)

S.R. Mhalaskar, S.S. Thorat, Y.R. Deshmukh
1Department of Food Science and Technology, Post Graduate Institute, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri -413 722, Maharashtra, India
Cite article:- Mhalaskar S.R., Thorat S.S., Deshmukh Y.R. (2017). An investigation on fermentative changes during the production of food bio-colours through solid state fermentation of broken rice by Monascus purpureus (MTCC 410). Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 36(4): 310-315. doi: 10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1132.
An attractive and stable colour is important in the marketability of foods and beverages. The utilization of broken rice as a by-product from agricultural farm can be of immense importance to convert relatively high-energy by-products into more useful and highly nutritious end product by use of microorganisms. In this respect the present investigation was aimed to address the fermentative changes in broken rice as a substrate during the production of food bio-colours through solid state fermentation by using Monascus purpureus (MTCC 410). The 7 days of SSF process was accompanied with the increase in the levels of protein, crude fat, crude fiber and ash content by values of 8.98% to 14.14%, 1.50% to 2.07%, 0.70% to 6.61% and 2.70% to 3.69% respectively while decrease in the level of carbohydrate by values of 74.32% to 27.71%, with lowering pH from 6.6 to 5.5. Present findings concluded that broken rice possesses good potentials for the bioconversion of the high energy organic materials into more useful and highly nutritious food bio-colours by Monascus purpureus (MTCC 410).
  1. Anupama and Ravindra, P. (2000). Studies on production of single cell protein by Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation of rice bran. Braz. Arch. of Biol. and Technol. 44(1): 79 – 88.
  2. A.O.A.C. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis, 15th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington DC.
  3. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th edition. AOAC International, US. 2000.
  4. Attri, D. and Joshi, V.K. (2005a). Optimisation of apple pomace based medium and fermentation conditions for pigment production by Chromobacter spp. J. Food Sci. Technol., 4: 515-520.
  5. Attri, D. and Joshi, V.K. (2005b). Optimisation of apple pomace based medium and fermentation conditions for pigment production by Micrococcus spp. J. Sci. Ind. Res.. 64: 598-601.
  6. Babitha, S. (2009). Microbial Pigments. In: Biotechnology for Agro-industrial Residues Utilization. [Singh nee Nigam, P. and A. Pandey, (Eds)], Springer Science & Business Media B.V., Netherlands. Pp 147-162. 
  7. Babitha, S., Sandhya, C. and Pandey, A. (2004). Natural Food Colorants. Applied Botany Abstracts, 23: 258-266. 
  8. Babitha, S., Soccol, C. R. and Pandey, A. (2006). Jackfruit Seed – A Novel Substrate for the Production of Monascus Pigments through Solid-State Fermentation. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 44: 465–471.
  9. Babitha, S., Soccol, C. R. and Pandey, A. (2007). Solid-state fermentation for the production of Monascus pigments from jackfruit seed. Bioresource Technology, 98:1554–1560.
  10. Butt, M.S., Ihsanullah Qamar, M., Anjum, F.M., Abdul Aziz and Atif Randhawa, M. (2010). Development of minerals enriched brown flour by utilizing wheat milling by-products. Int. J. of Food Safety. 3: 15-20.
  11. Bhatnagar, B. (2004). Amylase and protease production by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus niger from mangrove swamp, M-    F.Sc. (Mariculture), Dissertation, Submitted to Central Institute of fisheries Education, Mumbai, India, 63p.
  12. Carvalho, J. C., Oishi, B. O., Pandey, A. and Soccol, C. R. (2005). Biopigments from Monascus: Strain selection, citrinin production and color stability. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 48:885–894.
  13. Cavalcante, R. S., Lima, H. L. S., Pinto, G. A. S., Gava, C. A. T., and Rodrigues, S. (2008). Effect of moisture on Trichoderma conidia production on corn and wheat bran by solid state fermentation. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 1:100–104.
  14. Cristina Moreira da Silveira and Eliana Badiale-Furlong. (2009). Sperathe effects of solid-state Fermentation in the functional properties of defatted rice bran and wheat bran. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 52(6): 1555-15.
  15. Domsch, K. H., Gams, W., and Anderson, T. H. (1980). Monascus van Tiegh, in: Compendium of soil fungi. Academic Press, London; p. 425-426.
  16. El-Sayed, A. F. M. (1999). Alternative dietary protein sources for farmed tilapia, Oreochromis spp. Aquaculture, 179(1- 4):149-168.
  17. Esa Norhaizan Mohd, Tan Bee Lingand Loh Su Peng. (2013). By-products of rice processing: An overview of health benefits and applications. J. Rice Res. 1:1.
  18. Hadden graham, Klas hesselman and Per aman. (2014). The influence of wheat bran and sugar-beet pulp on the digestibility of dietary components in a cereal-based pig diet12. Downloaded from by guest on August 11, 2014.
  19. Heber, D., Ian Yip, Judith Ashley, David Elashoff, Robert Elashoff and Vay Liang, W.G. (1999). Cholesterol lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red-yeast-rice dietary supplement. Amer J. Clin. Nutr. 69:231-236.
  20. Hemati Matin, H.R., Shariatmadari, F. and Karimi Torshizi M.A. (2013). Various physico-chemical properties of dietary fiber sources of poultry diets. Int. J. of Agric. and Crop Sci. 6-18: 1239-1245.
  21. Hendry, G.A.F. and Houghton, D. (2013). National Food Colorants. Blackie & Sons, Glasgow. 
  22. Higashiyama, K., Fujikawa, S., Park, E.Y., and Shimizu, S. (2002). Production of arachidonic acid by Mortierella fungi. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng., 7: 252- 262.
  23. Imelda Joseph, Paul Raj, R. and Bhatnagar, D. (2008). Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient composition of selected feed ingredients. Indian J. Fish. 55(4): 327-332.
  24. Johns M.R. and Stuart D.M. (1991). Production of pigments by Monascus purpureus in solid culture. J. Ind. Microbiol. 8:23–38.
  25. Joshi, V.K. and Attri, D. (2006). Optimisation of apple pomace based medium and fermentation conditions for pigment production by Rhodotorula spp. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences.,76B:171-176.
  26. Joshi, V.K., Attri, D., Bala, A. and Bhushan, S. (2003). Microbial pigments. Indian J. of Biotechnol., 2: 362-369. 
  27. Jongrungruangchok, S., Kittakoop, P., Yongsmith, B., Bavovada, R., Tanasupawat, S., Lartpornmatulee, N. and Thebtaranonth Y. (2004). Azaphilone pigments from a yellow mutant of the fungus Monascus kaoliang. Phytochemistry, 65:2569– 2575.
  28. Kumar, S., Verma, U. and Sharma, H. (2012). Antibacterial Activity Monascus purpureus (red pigment) Isolated from Rice malt. Asian Journal of Biology and Life Sciences, 1: 252-255.
  29. Laufenberg, G., Kunz, B. and Nystroem, M. (2003). Transformation of vegetable waste into value added products: (A) the upgrading concept; (B) practical implementations. Bioresour. Technol. 87(2): 167-198.
  30. Lee, Y.K. and Chen, D.C. (2000). Application of Monascus pigments as food colourants.
  31. Lin, T.F. and Demain, A.I. (1992).. Effect of nutrition of Monascus spp. on formation of red pigments. App. Microbiol. Biotech. 36(1): 70-75.
  32. Lotong, N. and Suwanarit, P. (1990). Fermentation of angkak in plastic bags and regulation of pigmentation by initial moisture content. J. of App. Microbiol. 68: 565-570.
  33. Mazumder Saikat and Bera Debabrata. (2013). Production of malto-dextrin from broken rice. Intl. J. Res. Eng. Technol. 02(10):47.
  34. Moraes, A.F. (1999). Enriquecimento Protéico do Farelo de Arroz empregando Fermentação semisólida em Biorreator de Coluna comLeito Fixo. Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia de Alimentos. Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande.
  35. Panda B.P., Javed S. and Ali M. (2010). Production of angkak through co-culture of Monascus purpureus and Monsascus ruber. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 41:757-764.
  36. Pandey, A. (1991). Effect of particle size of substrate on enzyme production in solid-state fermentation. Bioresour. Technol. 37:169–172.
  37. Pandey, A. (2003). Solid-state fermentation. Biochem. Eng. J., 13:81–84.
  38. Pandey, A., Soccol, C. R. and Mitchell, D. (2000). New developments in solid state fermentation: I—Bioprocess and products. Process Biochem., 35:1153–1169.
  39. Pandey, A., Soccol, C.R. and Mitchell, D. (2000). New developments in solid-state fermentation: I – Bioprocess and products. Process Biochem.35:1153–1169.
  40. Pasha Imran, Saima Parveen, Salim ur Rehman and Haq Nawaz. (2008). Baking quality of wheat flour cookies supplemented with fiber from different sources. Pak. J. Food Sci. 18(1-4): 1-8.
  41. Reeba Panesar. (2014). Bioutilization of kinnow waste for the production of biopigments using submerged fermentation. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences. 3(1): 9-13.
  42. Raja Rajeswari T., Ponnusami V. and Sugumaran K. R. (2014). Production of Monascus Pigment in low cost fermentation. International Journal of ChemTech Research. 6(5):2929-2932.
  43. Silverira, S. T., Daroit, D. J., and Brandelli, A. (2008). Pigment production by Monascus purpureus in grape waste using factorial design. Food Science and Technology, 41:170–174.
  44. Singh, K., Linden, C.J., Johnson, E.J. and Tengerdy, P.R. (1990). Bioconversion of wheat straw to animal feed by solid substrate fermentation or ensiling. Indian J. Microbiol., 30(2): 201-208.
  45. Sharma Dipti. (2014). Understanding Bio-colour- A Review. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 3(1): 2277-8616.
  46. Teng, S.S. and Feldheim, W. (2001). Anka and Anka Pigment Production. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 26: 280-282. 
  47. Usman Muhammad, M. Tahir Ishfaq, Shahid Raza Malik, Muhammad Iqbal and Bushra Ishfaq. (2014). Alkaline extraction of starch from broken rice of Pakistan. Intl. J. Innov. App. Studies, (7):146-152.
  48. Vanajakshi V. (2006). A Thesis on polyketide production by Monascus pupureus. Submitted to university of Mysore for the award of the degree of Master of Science in Food Science (By Research). 
  49. Velmurugan Palanivel, Hyun Hur, Vellingiri Balachandar. (2011). Monascus pigment production by solid-state fermentation with corn cob substrate. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 112 (6):590–594.
  50. Vidyalakshmi, R., Paranthaman, R., Murugesh, S. and Singaravadivel, K. (2009). Stimulation of Monascus pigments by intervention of different nitrogen sources. Global J. Biotech. Biochem. 4(1):25-28.
  51. Vijayakumar, M. (2003). Solid state fermentation of oil cakes and wheat flour and evaluation of the products in shrimp feed, M.F.Sc. (Mariculture) Dissertation, Submitted to Central Institute of fisheries Education, Mumbai, India, 85p.

Editorial Board

View all (0)