Legume Research

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Evaluation of Rhizobium along with Multifunctional Rhizobacteria for Improving the Growth and Yield of Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper]

Vaibhav Pandey, 1,*, D.K. Dwivedi1, Harendra Singh, 1, S.S. Prasad2, Purushottam Kumar,1, Abhishek Mishra, 3, Anshuman Dwivedi4
1Department of Agronomy, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa-848 125, Bihar, India.
2Department of Soil Science, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa-848 125, Bihar, India.
3Department of Agronomy. Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208 001, Uttar Pradesh, India. 
4Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Khodaband Pur, Begusarai, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa-848 125, Bihar, India.
  • Submitted18-05-2023|

  • Accepted26-07-2023|

  • First Online 08-08-2023|

  • doi 10.18805/LR-5175

Background: Indigenous rhizobial populations may be unable to achieve successful symbiosis in the field due to rare population and unfavourable soil environment. Introduced plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are frequently linked to faster growth, development, and yield of plant with synergetic effect on indigenous Rhizobium bacteria. Furthermore, co-inoculating legumes with both Rhizobium and PGPR is proven more effective for improving nodulation as well as growth and development of legumes.

Methods: The experiment was conducted at research farm of TCA, Dholi Muzaffarpur a campus of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agriculture University, Pusa, Bihar during kharif season of 2021 to investigate the “Evaluation of Rhizobium along with multifunctional Rhizobacteria for improving the growth and yield of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper]”. There were eight number of treatments and replicated thrice in a randomized block design. The treatment comprised as T1- control, T2- Rhizobium (Bradyrhizobium spp.), T3- Rhizobium + PUK-171 (Stenotrophomonas rhizophila), T4- Rhizobium + NE 10 (Bacillus cereus), T5-Rhizobium + Pseudomonas spp., T6-Rhizobium + LMSR 45 (Pantoea agglomerans), T7-Rhizobium + Methylobacterium, T8-N as per RDF.

Result: The result revealed that co-inoculation of Rhizobium + PUK-171 (Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) significantly increase the plant height, number of leaves plant-1, number of branches plant‑1, plant dry weight, crop growth rate, and in nodule studies number of nodules plant-1, dry weight of nodules recoded significantly higher result as compare to T1, T2, and T8 and found at par with rest of treatment. In yield attributing character number of pods plant-1 recorded significantly higher result in co-inoculation of Rhizobium + PUK-171 (Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) and rest of character did not produce significant effect, in case of seed yield similar trends was followed, while in case of stover yield co-inoculation of Rhizobium along with Rhizobium + NE 10 (Bacillus cereus) recorded significantly higher result as compare to T1 and T8 and at par with rest of treatments. Harvest index did not produce significant effect.

Pulses are important in Indian agriculture because they provide a substantial quantity of vitamins, protein, minerals and calories to vegetarians (Pingoliya et al., 2014). Black gram, a prominent member of family Fabaceae known as Vigna mungo L. Hepper with the chromosomal number 2n=22. It is believed to have originated in India, where it has been cultivated since ancient times and is one of the country’s most coveted pulse crops. It contains about 24 per cent protein, 60 per cent carbohydrate and 1.3 per cent fat. Black gram seeds are good source of minerals and energy as well as contains ample amount of fibre content and good source of phosphorus. It helps to maintain soil fertility by enhancing soil physical, chemical, biological properties and fixes the atmospheric nitrogen through the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The crop can be grown as sole and or intercrop and it can tolerant drought and therefore, suitable for dryland areas.
       
Indiscriminate use of inorganic fertilizer, particularly nitrogenous and phosphorous resulted into widespread pollution of soil, air and water. These fertilizers are not only costly but also deplete non-renewable resources such oil, minerals and natural gas etc. (Joshi et al., 2006).  Excessive and long-term use of these chemicals harm soil microorganism, lowers soil fertility and hence diminishes productivity as well as polluting environment (Youssef and Eissa, 2014). Biofertilizer are ecologically acceptable, non-bulky, low-cost inputs that could augment mineral nutrition and play an energetic role in plant nutrition. They are organic substance which contains specific living microorganism, having unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, either non-symbiotically or symbiotically and some microorganism have potential to convert the unavailable (immobile) form of nutrient to available (mobile) form through various biological processes. Keeping this in view, the current investigation was conducted.
This experimental study was conducted at “Tirhut College of Agriculture, Dholi Muzaffarpur” a campus of “Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agriculture University, Pusa, Bihar” during kharif season of 2021. The soil of experimental plot was alluvial and having high calcium carbonate ranges from 20-40%. The soil was low in organic carbon (0.36%) and contained 191.8, 22.3 and 139.4 kg ha-1 available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively and pH 8.6 and EC 0.32 dSm-1. It was estimated that mean maximum temperature during crop season was ranged between 27.9°C to 33.4°C and the minimum temperature ranged between 14.1°C to 27.0°C. The relative humidity fluctuated from 98.0-100% at 7 AM and 73.7%-94.7% at 2 PM. The total rainfall of 675.63 mm was received during the crop season (August-October 2021). There were eight treatments allocated randomly within replications. The variety Pant U-31 was sown in mid of August with a spacing of 30×10 cm using 20 kg ha-1 seed. Seed was treated with Rhizobium and different rhizobacteria @ 20 gm per 1 kg of seed. The treated seeds was shade dried before sowing. In order to achieve the recommended dose of N, P and K, the amount of Urea, SSP and MOP was 43.7 kg/ha, 225 kg/ha, 33.33 kg/ha respectively. During sowing, the total quantity of all the fertilizers was side dressed in furrows opened at a distance of 5 cm away from the seed row. For crop studies, five selected plants were tagged for taking observations of growth and yield parameters. The results were analysed as per statistically standardized principle of ANOVA technique described by Gomez and Gomez (1984) at 5% level of significance (Fig 1, 2).
 

Fig 1: Treated seed with various multifunctional rhizobacteria.


 

Fig 2: Soil analysis of P with spectrophotometer.

Growth attributes
 
The different treatments did not influence growth parameters except plant height of black gram (Table 1, 2). Co-inoculation of Rhizobium+ PUK-171 (Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) recorded significantly higher plant height (50.95 cm at 50 DAS), number of leaves plant-1 (27.35, 33.89), number of branches plant-1(6.15, 7.15), plant dry weight (12.23, 16.22 g), crop growth rate (14.15, 3.80 g m-2 day) over T1-Control, T2-Rhizobium (Bradyrhizobium spp.), T8 was found at par with rest of treatments. The significant growth attributes due to increasing in the availability of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorous seems to have played an important role in enhancing cell division and metabolic activities resulting into higher production of photosynthates and their translocation. Similar results were reported by Nalawde et al., (2015).
 

Table 1: Effect of Rhizobium along with multifunctional rhizobacteria on yield attributing characters of black gram.


 

Table 2: Effect of Rhizobium along with multifunctional rhizobacteria on yield attributing characters, number of nodules and dry weight of nodules per plant of black gram.


 
Nodulation
 
At 25 DAS, the number of nodule plant-1 (16.23) recorded significantly higher in co-inoculation of Rhizobium + PUK-171 (Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) as compare to T1-Control, T2-Rhizobium (Bradyrhizobium spp.) and T8- application of N as per RDF and found at par with rest of treatments (Table 2). Whereas at 50 DAS co-inoculation of Rhizobium + PUK-171 (Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) recorded significantly higher nodulation over T1 and T8. It might be because Rhizobium and multifunctional rhizobacteria have the capacity to promote bacterial development to produce substances that encourage growth, leading to rise in population and ultimately nodule number and their dry weight. Multifunctional rhizobacteria have potential to induce the development of large number of epidermal cell capable of differentiating infectable root hairs. The significantly higher number of nodules with seed pelleting with Rhizobium @ 0.2 kg kg-1 of seed was also recorded by Vennila et al., (2018).
 
Yield attributes
 
Table 3 shows that the number of pods plant-1 were maximum (22.5) in T3 and minimum in control treatment (16.5). The treatments T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 did not show significant differences. The yield attributing character like number of seeds pod-1, seed index and length of pod did not differ significantly among the different treatments. The differences in pod plant-1, count of seed pod-1, pod length and seed index with the inoculation of seed with biofertilizer has been recorded by Siddikee et al., (2018).
 

Table 3: Effect of Rhizobium along with multifunctional rhizobacteria on yield attributes of black gram.


 
Seed and stover yield
 
The differences in seed yield were significant among the treatments (Table 4). Highest seed yield (1006 kg) was recorded by co-inoculation of Rhizobium + PUK-171 (Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) (T3), which was significantly superior over control (T1), Rhizobium (Bradyrhizobium spp.) (T2) and N as per RDF (T8) and found statistically at par with Rhizobium+ NE 10 (Bacillus cereus) (T4), Rhizobium+ Pseudomonas spp. (T5), Rhizobium + LMSR 45 (Pantoea agglomerans) (T6), Rhizobium + Methylobacterium (T7). The treatment T-4 was found significantly superior over control (T1) and found at par with the remaining treatments. The minimum stover yield (1769 kg ha-1) was produced under control (T1). The harvest index varied from 27.91 to 30.47%. The maximum harvest index (30.47%) was recorded under T3-Rhizobium + PUK-171 (Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) whereas minimum (27.91%) was recorded under control plots. Similar results related to seed yield were observed by Hosseini et al., (2014) by co-inoculation of Rhizobium along with Pseudomonas + Azospirillum. The data regarding seed and stover yield has been given in Table 4 and graphically depicted in Fig 3.
 

Table 4: Effect of Rhizobium along with multifunctional rhizobacteria on seed yield, stover yield and harvest index of black gram.


 

Fig 3: Effect of Rhizobium along with multifunctional rhizobacteria on seed and stover yield of black gram.

Based on the results, it is concluded that treatment Rhizobium+ PUK 171(Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) was the most promising since it recorded 26.57% and 53.68% higher CGR during 25-50 DAS and 50 DAS to harvest, respectively. Also 30.80% and 23.90% more number of nodules over control at 25 and 50 DAS, respectively. As a result, highest seed yield (1006 kg), maximum harvest index (30.47%) and B: C ratio (1.54) were also recorded under the same treatment.
None.

  1. Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. John wiley and sons.

  2. Hosseini, A., Maleki, A., Fasihi, K., and Naseri, R. (2014). The co- application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and inoculation with Rhizobium bacteria on grain yield and its components of mungbean (Vigna radiate L.) in Ilam province, Iran. International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. 8(7): 776-781.

  3. Joshi, K.K., Kumar, V., Dubey, R.C. and Maheshwari, D.K. (2006). Effect of chemical fertilizer adaptive variants, Pseudomonas aeruginosa GRC2 and Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 on Macrophomena phaseolina causing charcoal rot of Brassica juncea. Korean J. Environ. Agric. 25: 228-235.

  4. Nalawde Amit, A. and Satish, A.B. (2015). Response of Black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] to Biofertilizer. Int. J. of Life Sciences. 3(1): 81-84

  5. Pingoliya, K.K., Mathur, A.K., Dotaniya, M.L., Jajoria, D.K. and Narolia, G.P. (2014). Effect of phosphorus and iron levels on growth and yield attributes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under agro-climatic zone IV of Rajasthan, India. Legume Research. 37(5): 537-541. Doi: 10.5958/0976- 0571.2014.00672.9.

  6. Siddikee, M.R., Sultana, R., Hasan, M., Rahman, T., Siddique, A.B. and Amin, A.K.M.R. (2018). Effect of nitrogen sources on the yield of different blackgram (Vigna mungo) varieties. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture. 10(3): 1-8. DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2018/45612.

  7. Vennila, S., Pushpakaran, M. and Palaniraja, K. (2018). Effect of pre sowing seed pelleting treatment using botanical leaf powders and biofertilizers on growth and yield characters in black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] variety VBN 5. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 7(4): 2923-2925

  8. Youssef, M.M.A. and Eissa, M.F.M. (2014). Biofertilizers and their role in management of plant parasitic nematodes. A review. Journal of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research. 5(1): 1-6.

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