Preliminary morphological characterization and evaluation of selected Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] genotypes for yield and yield related traits

DOI: 10.18805/LR-475    | Article Id: LR-475 | Page : 157-164
Citation :- Preliminary morphological characterization and evaluation of selected Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] genotypes for yield and yield related traits.Legume Research.2020.(43):157-164
M.S. Mohammed, H.A. Shimelis and M.D. Laing sagir007@gmail.com
Address : Department of Plant Science, Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.
Submitted Date : 25-12-2018
Accepted Date : 23-05-2019


Forty nine (49) Bambara groundnut genotypes derived from single plant selection of diverse origin were evaluated for yield and yield components using 26 yield and yield related traits. Highly significant (P<0.001) differences were detected among the genotypes for canopy spread, petiole length, weight of biomass, seed weight and seed height, while seedling emergence, pod weight, seed length and seed width were significantly different (P<0.05). Principal component analysis identified nine influential components whereby PC1 and PC2 highly contributed to the total variation at 19% and 14%, respectively. Leaf colour at emergence, petiole colour, leaf joint pigmentation and calyx colour were highly correlated with PC1, while seed length, seed width and seed height had strong association with PC2. Both the principal component and cluster analyses displayed common association among most of the genotypes for agronomic and seed yield traits. Genotypes that showed high seed yield performance and greater biomass production can be tested for large-scale production, breeding or germplasm conservation.


Cluster analysis Germplasm Principal component analysis True-to-type


  1. Agrobase (2005). Agrobase generation II. User’ manual. Manitoba, Canada.
  2. Ahmad, N.S. (2013). Genetic Analysis of Plant Morphology in Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.]. PhD Thesis, University of Nottingham, UK.
  3. Amadou, H., Bebeli, P., Kaltsikes, P. (2001). Genetic diversity in Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L.) germplasm revealed by RAPD markers. Genome. 44: 995-999.
  4. Amarteifio, J., Tibe, O., Njogu, R. (2006). The mineral composition of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.) grown in Southern Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology. 23(5): 2408-2411.
  5. Aremu, M.O., Olaofe, O., Akintayo, E. (2006). A comparative study on the chemical and amino acid composition of some Nigerian under-utilized legume flours. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 5: 34-38.
  6. Cobbinah, F.A., Addo-Quaye, A.A., Asante, I.K. (2011). Characterization, evaluation and selection of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] accessions with desirable traits from eight regions of Ghana. ARPN Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 6: 21-32.
  7. Collinson, S., Sibuga, K., Tarimo, A., Azam-Ali, S. (2000). Influence of sowing date on the growth and yield of Bambara groundnut l andraces in Tanzania. Experimental Agriculture. 36: 1-13.
  8. Goli, A.E. (1997). Bibliographical Review, 4-10. In: Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.], [Heller, J., Begemann, F., Mushonga, J. (Eds.)], Proceedings of the Workshop on Conservation and Improvement of Bambara Groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] 14–16 November 1995 Harare, Zimbabwe, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, 162 pp.
  9. IPGRI/IITA/BAMNET, (2000). Descriptors for Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.]. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy; International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. The International Bambara Groundnut Network, Germany, 57pp.
  10. Linnemann, A. and Azam-Ali, S. (1993). Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea, (L.) Verdc.]. pp. 13-57 In: Underutilized Crops Series 2. Vegetables and Pulses. [Williams, J.T. (Ed.)], Chapman and Hall, London, UK.
  11. Massawe, F., Mwale, S., Azam-Ali, S., Roberts, J. (2005). Breeding in Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.]: Strategic Considerations. African Journal of Biotechnology. 4: 463-471.
  12. Massawe, F.J., Azam-Ali, S.N. and Roberts, J.A. (2003). The impact of temperature on leaf appearance in Bambara groundnut landraces. Crop Science. 43: 1375-1379.
  13. Massawe, F., Dickinson, M., Roberts, J., Azam-Ali, S. (2002). Genetic diversity in Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] landraces revealed by AFLP markers. Genome. 45: 1175-1180.
  14. Mohammed, M.S., Shimelis, H.A., Laing, M.D. (2016). Preliminary investigation on some agronomic and morphological variations of within and between Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] landraces. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 18: 1909-1920. 
  15. Minka, S.R. and Bruneteau, M. (2000). Partial chemical composition of Bambara pea [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.]. Food Chemistry. 68: 273-276.
  16. Ntundu, W., Shillah, S., Marandu, W., Christiansen, J.L. (2006). Morphological diversity of Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] landraces in Tanzania. Genetic Resource and Crop Evolution. 53: 367-378.
  17. Ntundu, W.H., Bach, I.C., Christiansen J.L., Andersen, S.B. (2004). Analysis of genetic diversity in Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] landraces using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. African Journal of Biotechnology. 3: 220-225.
  18. Okpuzor, J., Okochi V., Ogbunugafor H., Ogbonnia S., Fagbayi T., Obidiegwu C. (2009). Estimation of cholesterol level in different brands of vegetable oils. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 8: 57-62.
  19. Rachie, K. and Silvestre, P. (1977). Grain legumes. In: Leaky, C.L.A., Williams, J.B. (Eds.), Food Crops of the Lowland Tropics. Oxford University Press, UK, pp. 41-74.
  20. Razvi, S.M., Khan, M.N., Bhat, M.A., Ahmad, M., Ganaie, S.A., Sheikh, F.A., Najeeb, S., F.A. Parry, F.A. (2018). Morphological variability and phylogenetic analysis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Legume Research. 41(2): 208-212.
  21. Sellschope, J.P.F. (1962). Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Field Crops Abstract. 15: 7.
  22. Shegro, A., van Rensburg, W., Adebola, P. (2013). Assessment of genetic variability in Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterrenea (L.) Verdc.) using morphological quantitative traits. Academic Journal of Agricultural Research. 1: 45-51.
  23. SPSS, (2011). IBM SPSS statistics 20. IBM Corp., New York.
  24. Vyas, D., Joshi, A., Rajamani, G., Jain, D. (2018). Assessment of genetic diversity in black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] genotypes based on ISSR. Legume Research. 41(2): 175-181.
  25. Yin, S., Wang, Y., Zhibiao Nan, Z. (2018). Genetic diversity studies of alfalfa germplasm (Medicago sativa L. subsp. sativa) of United States origin using microsatellite analysis. Legume Research. 41(2): 202-207. 
  26. Zenabou, N., Martin, B. J. F., Ernest, F. P., Bassiaka, O., Claude, S., Siegfried, D.D. (2014). Agro-morphological variability in twelve bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc.] accessions in Cameroon. Sciences, Technologies et Développement. 16: 38-45. 

Global Footprints