Legume Research

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​Nodulation, Yield Attributes and Yield of Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.)] Influenced by Different Level of Potassium Humate and Fertility Levels

Yogesh Kumar1, Rajhans Verma1, Kuldeep Singh2,*, Oma Shanker Bhukhar2, Rajesh2
1Department of Soil Science, Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner-303 329, Rajasthan, India.
2Department of Agronomy, Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner-303 329, Rajasthan, India.
  • Submitted05-06-2021|

  • Accepted30-11-2021|

  • First Online 07-01-2022|

  • doi 10.18805/LR-4687

Background: Optimum crop growth and yield is result of interlinking of several factors. In semi- tropical soil in central plateau and hills zone are deficit in organic carbon and NPK content; therefore inadequate fertilization may leads to pure quality and also lower crop productive capacity of soil. For the maintenance of sustainable and productive production, maintaining soil health is a critical factor. Under low fertility levels, mungbean gives low seed yield. Potassium humate, nitrogen and phosphorus (RDF) application may be increase yield of mungbean in this zone.

Method: A field experiment was conducted to study, “Nodulation, yield attributes and yield of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.)] influenced by different level of potassium humate and fertility. The experiment was carried out in factorial randomized block design with three replications and sixteen treatment combination.

Result: Result showed that total number of root nodules, effective nodules, fresh and dry weight of root nodules, leghaemoglobin, nodule index, no. of pods/plant, no. of seeds/pod, test weight, seed and straw yield were observed significantly higher with application of potassium humate @ 4.5 kg/ha. Among different fertility level, the application of 100% RDF significantly increased the total number of root nodules and effective nodules, fresh and dry weight of root nodules, leghaemoglobin, nodule index, no. of pods/plant, no. of seeds/pod and test weight, seed and straw yield. With combined application of potassium humate @ 3.0 kg/ha + 75% RDF significantly higher no. effective nodules, dry weight of root nodules and seed yield were observed, as well as saving of 25% RDF and 1.5 kg potassium humate were also observed.
Mungbean is a self-pollinated crop which comes under leguminaceae family. It is a hardy crop and can be grown on well drained sandy loam soils under rain fed conditions. Mungbean is the pulse crop which is extensively grown in subtropical regions of the world.  It has high nutritive value containing 25% protein in which lysine and tryptophan amino acids are predominant (Kumar et al., 2018). It is the main source of minerals and vitamins, i.e. vitamin E and vitamin K which is playing metabolic role in maintaining human great health. Different types of minerals found in pulses are particularly iron, zinc and magnesium. It is considered as dual purpose crop which can be used for seeds as well as for forage (Davies and Stewart, 1987).
       
Among cultivated pulses, mungbean is a leading pulse crop with an area of 3.64 million ha and an annual production of 2.34 million ton with productivity of 8.72 q/ha (Anonymous, 2019). Yield potential of mungbean mainly in arid and semiarid regions may be enhanced by mediating soil fertility and agronomic management practices. Addition of organic substance during the crop cultivation enhanced the soil microbial population and diversity (Dotaniya et al., 2020). During the mineralization, different type of low molecular organic acid produced by the soil microbial population, which act as plant nutrient mobilizers (Dotaniya et al., 2016). Humic substances are natural occurring ligands found in soils predominantly which played life sustaining multiple functions in the soil environment (Olaetxea et al., 2018). Humic substances act as chelating agents in soil and enhanced the labile concentration of plant nutrients. The use of humic substances enhances the soil quality, nutrient availability and also promote crop yield. Potassium humate is the concentrated form of humus having composition of 50% humic and 12% potassium, which is a salt of potassium. It occurs naturally in the form of lignite from peat material which under low pressure converts into coal and eventually into a pure humic substance. Chemical composition of potassium humate is N (3.71%), K (6.25%) and sulphur (0.55%). Potassium humate acts as an additive fertilizer which improves the efficiency of the fertilizers and provides favorable environment to the soil microbes. Organic matter is the inherent key of maintaining soil health which is responsible for improving the yield potential of crops. Indian soils are low in organic carbon content therefore mineralization rate of SOC and other nutrients are very low. Use of potassium humate as an amendment for improving soil health and soil properties in such Indian soils are a viable option in low organic C soils (Tripura et al., 2017). It also reduced the losses and fixation of potassium in soil (Kumar et al., 2013).
       
Soil fertility is the inherent capacity of soil which enriches the soil with nutrients which are directly affecting the crop yield and quality. It is the ability of soil to provide all essential plant nutrients in available form in a balance amount. For the maintenance of sustainable and productive production, maintaining soil health is a critical factor. Under low fertility levels, mungbean gives low seed yield (Nair, 2017). Optimum nitrogen fertilizer application enhanced the crop yield of mungbean. Application of optimum amount of nitrogen resulted higher dry matter production by increasing in vegetative growth and photosynthetic rate. There is significant increased in number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod by the application of nitrogen fertilizer (Razzaque et al., 2017). Phosphorus plays a vital role in flowering and seed formation in crop plants. It is performing as a nutrient limiting factor for the mungbean productivity. Application of recommended dose of phosphorus fertilizer had increased plant dry matter, phosphorus uptake and seed yield. Applied phosphorus in soil has great fate of immobilizing in soil which is the most limiting factor in phosphorus nutrition towards plants.
              
Potassium fertilizer application makes the mungbean crop tolerant to drought conditions by eliminating the adverse effects of drought. Even in water stress condition potassium increases the shoot growth of mungbean. Under drought conditions, the yield of mungbean decreases which can be increased with the application of potassium fertilizer (Sadaf and Tahir, 2017). Therefore, keeping mentioned facts in view, present study was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of potassium humate and RDF on summer mungbean for better nodulation and seed yield.
This field experiment was conducted at the agronomy farm, S.K.N. College of Agriculture Jobner located at 26o05² North latitude, 75o 28² East longitude and altitude of 427 meters above mean sea level during the kharif season of 2019. The experiment was carried out in factorial randomized block design with three replications and 16 treatment combination. The experiment was comprised of four treatments of potassium humate (control, 1.5 kg/ha, 3.0 kg/ha, 4.5 kg/ha) and four treatments of fertility dose (control, 50% RDF, 75% RDF and 100% RDF) were applied to the mungbean. Treatment comprises: T1- K0F0 ( Control), T2- K1F0 (potassium humate @ 1.5kg/ha and fertilizer level zero), T3- K2F0 (potassium humate @ 3 kg/ha) and fertilizer level zero), T4- K3F0 (potassium humate @ 4.5kg/ha) and fertilizer level zero), T5- K0F1 (potassium humate level zero and 50% RDF), T6- K1F1 (potassium humate @ 1.5 kg/ha and 50% RDF), T7- K2F1 (potassium humate @ 3 kg/ha and 50% RDF), T8- K3F1 (potassium humate @ 4.5 kg/ha and 50% RDF), T9- K0F2 (potassium humate level zero and 75% RDF),T10- K1F2 (potassium humate @ 1.5 kg/ha and 75% RDF), T11- K2F2 (potassium humate @ 3 kg/ha and 75% RDF), T12- K3F2 (potassium humate @ 4.5 kg/ha and 75% RDF), T13- K0F3 (potassium humate level zero and 100% RDF), T14- K1F3 (potassium humate @ 1.5 kg/ha and 100% RDF), T15- K2F3 (potassium humate @ 3 kg/ha and 100% RDF), T16- K3F3 (potassium humate @ 4.5 kg/ha and 100% RDF). The soil of experiment field was loamy sand in texture having alkaline ph (8.11), low in organic carbon (0.20%), available nitrogen (127.23 kg/ha), medium in available phosphorus (18.21 kg/ha) and potassium (142.15 kg/ha). Fertilizer were applied as per treatment through diammonium phosphate (DAP) containing 46% P2O5 and 18% N, urea containing 46% N and K2O through murate of potash at the time of sowing as per treatment and entire dose of potassium humate was thoroughly mixed in soil before sowing of the crop. The required quantity of seeds (25 kg/ha) was treated with rhizobium culture and phosphorus solubilising bacterial (PSB) before sowing @ 20 g/kg of seed. The seeds were sown in row drawn 30 cm apart. Plant to plant spacing was maintained at 10cm with 5cm deep of variety RMG-492. Irrigation applied in field only one time at 34 DAS.
       
The total no. of nodules and effective nodule/plant was counted on flowering stage at 40 days. Five plants randomly selected. Healthy pink colored nodules were counted and mean value was recorded as effective no. of nodules/plant. Effective root nodules were weighed with the help of an electronic balance and average was worked out and recorded as fresh weight of effective root nodules/plant than subjected to oven dry at 70oC till a constant weight was obtained and then average was worked out. Leghaemoglobin content of root nodule was estimated as hemochrome as described by Bergerson (1982).
 
 
 
Where, D is initial dilution.
       
The number of nodules was counted from randomly selected five plants from each plot at the time of flowering stage and nodule index was computed by formula.
 
 
 
Experimental data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) as per factorial randomized block design (Gomez and Gomez, 1984). Significance of the treatments were tested using F test with 5% level of significance (P<0.05) and means were compared using the least significant difference (LSD) test at a = 0.05.
Nodulation
 
Potassium humate
 
A perusal of data in Table 1 revealed that the application of potassium humate significantly increased nodulation parameters up to the treatment 4.5 kg/ha over control. Significantly maximum number of total nodules/plant, effective nodules/plant, fresh and dry weight of nodule (mg/plant), nodule index and leghaemoglobin content in nodule (mg/g) (37.89, 29.22, 137.60, 72.23, 1.27 and 2.02, respectively) were observed with the application of potassium humate @ 4.5 kg/ha followed by potassium humate @ 3 kg/ha over control. The lowest value of above parameters recorded under control. This effect might be due to presence of fulvic and humic acid in potassium humate. Humic acid supplies essential nutrients and minerals for plant growth, whereas the major function of fulvic acid is transport of nutrients. Potassium humate increased the availability of P in root zone, which in turn in better growth of root and shoot and also help in better nodulation (Tripura et al., 2017). These findings were also supported by Abdelhamid et al., (2011), Patil et al., (2011) and Sarwar et al., (2014).
 

Table 1: Effect of potassium humate and fertility levels on no. of total nodule, effective nodule, weight of fresh and dry nodule (mg/plant), nodule index and leghaemoglobin content (mg/g) in nodule of mungbean at flowering.


 
Fertility level
 
Significantly maximum number of nodules/plant, effective nodules/plant, fresh and dry weight of nodule (mg/plant), nodule index and leghaemoglobin content in nodule (mg/g) (37.83, 29.07, 139.35, 72.89, 1.27 and 1.97, respectively) were observed with application of 100% RDF followed by application of  75% RDF over control. This effect might be due to positive effects of nitrogen and phosphorus; Nitrogen provides favorable nutritional environment in the root zone for better growth of nodules. Phosphorus plays a major role in root development, improves root nodules and nitrogen fixation by roots. Plants receiving moderately high or high P had intermediate root length system and plant receiving high N concentration stimulated root growth and resulted in the longest root systems and nodulation (Gentili et al., 2006). The present investigation is also conformity with Suman et al., (2007), Singh and Sharma. (2011).
 
Interaction
 
The interaction effect of potassium humate and fertility levels on the total no. of effective nodules/plant and dry weight of nodule was significantly observed (Table 2 and 3). The treatment combination, potassium humate @ 4.5 kg/ha with 100% RDF (K3F3) recorded the maximum effective nodules/plant and dry weight of nodule (mg/plant) (33.98 and 84.02) which was remained at par on potassium humate @ 4.5 kg/ha with 75% RDF (K3F2) (32.28 and 80.26), potassium humate @ 3.0 kg/ha with 100% RDF (K2F3) (31.65 and 79.85), potassium humate @ 3.0 kg/ha with 75% RDF (K2F2) (31.43 and 78.57) over control (17.55 and 42.35). The significant increase in nodulation parameters under the application of potassium humate and fertility levels was largely function of improved root anatomy and soil health (Idress et al., 2012).  A synergistic interaction occurs between potassium humate and fertility levels (Kumar et al., 2014) and resulted in increase in the fresh and dry weight of nodules. This finding was in agreement with Abdelhamid et al., (2011), Ali et al., (2016).
 

Table 2: Interactive effect of potassium humate and fertility levels on effective no. of nodules/plant of mungbean at flowering.


 

Table 3: Interactive effect of potassium humate and fertility levels on dry weight of total nodules of mungbean at flowering.


 
Yield attributes and yield
 
Potassium humate
 
The data pertaining to the effect of potassium humate and fertility levels on yield attributes and yield of mungbean have been summarized in Table  4. Significantly maximum no. of pods/plant, no. of seeds/pod, test weight (g), seed and straw yield (kg/ha) (21.56, 8.95, 33.80, 1193 and 2617, respectively) was obtained with application of potassium humate @ 4.5 kg/ha followed by application of potassium humate @ 3 kg/ha over control. Humic acid improved plant net photosynthesis via increasing chlorophyll and electron transport flux in plants, this leads to more transport of photosynthetic products from leaves and stem to grain indicating that higher the biomass at anthesis (Aparicio et al., 2002). The results corroborated with the findings of Sarwar et al., (2014), Taha and Osman (2018) and Elkin et al., (2019).
 

Table 4: Effect of potassium humate and fertility levels on no. of pods/plant, no. of seeds/pod, test weight (g), seed and straw yield (kg/ha) of mungbean at harvest.



Fertility levels

Significantly maximum no. of pods/plant, no. of seeds/pod, test weight (g), seed and straw yield (kg/ha) (22.07, 8.86, 34.47, 1197 and 2604, respectively) with application of 100% RDF followed by application of 75% RDF over control. Application of nitrogen in the early stage of mungbean is very important in promoting vegetative growth and biomass production. Hence, application of nitrogen stimulated seed setting and rapidly increased the yields attribute of mungbean (Razzaque et al., 2017). Phosphorus plays an important role in energy transfer and conservation. During certain stage of development more assimilates are produced than used in development and growth of plant and excess assimilates are diverted in storage compounds. At later stage the storage compound remobilize and move to sink which increased the number of pods and seeds per pod (Hernandez et al., 1983). These results were in recognizance with the findings of Yakadri et al., (2002), Karwasra et al., (2006), Kumar (2015).
 
Interaction
 
The interaction effect of potassium humate and fertility levels on seed yield was significantly observed (Table 5). The treatment combination, potassium humate @ 4.5 kg/ha with 100 % RDF (K3F3) was recorded the maximum seed yield (1412.06 kg/ha) but it was found at par with combined application of potassium humate @ 4.5 kg/ha and 75 % RDF (K3F2) (1347.84 kg/ha), application of potassium humate @ 3.0 kg/ha and 100% RDF (K2F3) (1343.32 kg/ha) and application of potassium humate @ 3.0 kg/ha and 75 % RDF (K2F2) (1310.25 kg/ha) over control. The significant increment in yields under the application of potassium humate and fertility levels was function of better growth and subsequent increment in yields. The synergistic interaction occurs between potassium humate and fertility levels had resulted in enhancement of number of pods per plant and seed per pods, ultimate the seed yield. This finding was in agreement with Ali et al., (2016) and Ranpariya et al., (2017).
 

Table 5: Interactive effect of potassium humate and fertility levels on seed yield (kg/ha) of mungbean at harvest.


 
Based on above findings, experimental results was concluded that the yield and nodulation obtained under treatment combination K2F2 (potassium humate 3.0 kg/ha + 75% RDF) was significantly higher than other treatments combinations and found statistically equal to treatment combination K3F2 (potassium humate 4.5 kg/ha + 75% RDF), K3F3 (potassium humate 4.5 kg/ha + 100% RDF) and K2F3 (potassium humate 3.0 kg/ha + 100% RDF), which indicate the saving of 25% RDF and 1.5 kg potassium humate.
 

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