Legume Research

  • Chief EditorJ. S. Sandhu

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Legume Research, volume 45 issue 10 (october 2022) : 1317-1324

Yield Losses Due to Weeds, Critical Period for Weed-crop Competition in Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) 

Ravindra Singh, Sharda Choudhary, R.S. Mehta, O.P. Aishwath, G. Lal
1ICAR-National Research Centre on Seed Spices, Tabiji, Ajmer-305 206, Rajasthan, India.
  • Submitted06-03-2020|

  • Accepted02-12-2020|

  • First Online 02-03-2021|

  • doi 10.18805/LR-4369

Cite article:- Singh Ravindra, Choudhary Sharda, Mehta R.S., Aishwath O.P., Lal G. (2022). Yield Losses Due to Weeds, Critical Period for Weed-crop Competition in Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Legume Research. 45(10): 1317-1324. doi: 10.18805/LR-4369.
Background: Weed populations reduce crop yields by influencing the pattern of crop growth and development throughout the season and by directly competing with the crop for limiting precious resources, like light, water or nutrients. A number of the factors that influence magnitude of crop yield losses from weed interference include the timing of weed emergence relative to the crop, weed density, pattern of weed growth and development. Weed management is one among the foremost critical factors influencing crop yield. By providing a window of weed-free growth early within the season, the size advantage that crop seedlings have over weeds can be utilized to reduce the intensity of direct competition for resources at the stages of crop development when yield is being determined. Weeds are identified as a significance drawback since they create biotic stress in realizing the genetic yield potential of this valuable crop.
Methods: A field experiment was carried out during the rabi season of 2010-11 to 2014-15 at ICAR- National Research Centre on Seed Spices, Ajmer, Rajasthan to estimate the yield losses because of weed infestation and to work out the critical period for weed control (CPWC) in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). There were 14 treatments comprising of initial weedy periods of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 days after sowing (DAS) and weed free period upto 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 DAS along with weedy till harvest (un-weeded check) and weed free till harvest (weed free check). The treatments were replicated three times in a randomized block design.
Result: Maximum pod length (cm), number of pods/plant, number of seed/pod, test weight (g), seed yield (kg/ha), straw yield (kg/ha) and harvesting index (%) to the tune of 9.47, 41.2, 16.67, 12.60, 2297, 4954 and 31.73 were recorded at weed free throughout growth period. Weed infestation up to 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 DAS and weedy throughout growth period reduced the seed yield significantly to the magnitude of 567.3, 801.7, 913.3, 1253.3, 1393.7 and 1736.3 kg/ha. Yield losses in fenugreek increase from 2.95 kg/ha/day at 15 days weed infestation to 12.31 kg/ha/day at 135 days weed infestation. Maximum gross return (`104248/ha), net return (`67018/ha) were obtained at weed free throughout growth period with the B:C ratio 2.80 among the weed free treatments. The employment of response curves with weed free or weed competition period showed that seed yield of fenugreek were the highest with the field free from weeds throughout the growth period and the critical period of weed/fenugreek competition was 32 days after sowing and lies between 30-45 days after sowing. In regression approach for fenugreek seed yield and weed free or weed competition period the quadratic function was fitted to estimate the expected yields which had the high significant with the data recorded and have the highest values of R2. If we predict the seed yield losses based on the quadratic model for weed free period model, it declined from 42.04 at 0 DAS to 0.0% at 135 days. Similarly, weed infestation period model predicted the seed yield losses increased from 0.00 at 0 days weed infestation to 73.42% at 135 days. Critical period for weed competition in fenugreek was found to be 32 days after sowing. The CPWC is helpful for making decisions on the necessity for and timing of weed control.
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