Legume Research

  • Chief EditorJ. S. Sandhu

  • Print ISSN 0250-5371

  • Online ISSN 0976-0571

  • NAAS Rating 6.80

  • SJR 0.391

  • Impact Factor 0.8 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Elsevier (Scopus and Embase), AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Legume Research, volume 45 issue 9 (september 2022) : 1106-1113

Influence of Nutrient Mobilizers on Productivity and Nutrient Uptake in Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) Crop under the Tarai Region of Uttarakhand

Girja S. Tewari1,*, Navneet Pareek1, Ramesh Chandra1, K. P. Raverkar1, V.K. Singh2
1Department of Soil Science, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, Uttarakhand, India.
2Department of Agronomy, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, Uttarakhand, India.
  • Submitted14-08-2019|

  • Accepted08-01-2020|

  • First Online 09-11-2020|

  • doi 10.18805/LR-4211

Cite article:- Tewari S. Girja, Pareek Navneet, Chandra Ramesh, Raverkar P. K., Singh V.K. (2022). Influence of Nutrient Mobilizers on Productivity and Nutrient Uptake in Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) Crop under the Tarai Region of Uttarakhand . Legume Research. 45(9): 1106-1113. doi: 10.18805/LR-4211.
Background: Pulses in Indian agriculture hold a vital position. They are considered as a rich source of vegetable protein, vitamins, minerals and calories to the entire vegetarians in India. Due to long and indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers, there is deterioration of soil health and hence decrease in productivity. Nutrient mobilizers such as Rhizobium, PGPRs are biological microorganisms that help in atmospheric N2 fixation along with phosphorous solubilization hence; increase the availability of nutrients to the plants.

Methods: In this paper a field experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2017 and 2018 to evaluate the influence of nutrient mobilizers along with recommended dose of fertilizers on productivity and nutrient uptake in blackgram. 

Result: A pronounced effect of nutrient mobilizers was observed on the yield attributing characters of urdbean. Maximum number of seeds per pod, 1000-seed weight, grain yield, straw yield, harvest index, maximum nutrient content and uptake in grain and straw was observed in the treatment T11 (Zn Nm + PGPR + ZnO @ 28.0 kg/ha + Rh+ RDF) followed by T10 (Rh + Zn Nm + PGPR + ZnO @ 14.0 kg/ha + RDF). It can be concluded that nutrient mobilizers not only increase the yield attributes in blackgram but also responsible for increase in nutrient content in the grains which ultimately signals positive attitude regarding nutritional security of the nation.
Pulses hold a prominent position in Indian agriculture in virtue of the fact that they provide rich source of vegetable protein, vitamins, minerals and calories to the entire vegetarians in India (Pingoliya et al., 2014). Besides being a rich source of protein, they also maintain the soil fertility through their ability of biological nitrogen fixation in soil and thus play a vital role towards sustainable agriculture. These can be grown on a varied soil series and climatic environments and play important role in crop rotation, mixed and inter-cropping.
       
Black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] also known as urdbean, is an important short duration legume crop that is grown throughout India. It belongs to the family Fabaceae with chromosome number 2n= 22 and mostly cultivated for its dry beans that are rich in proteins having high lysine content which is deficient in cereal grains. It has an advantage of cultivating in all the three seasons such as kharif, rabi and summer throughout India. It has the ability to grow under the condition of low fertility and varying conditions of soil and climate. In the world scenario, India ranked first in area and production of pulses while, Bahrain stood first in terms of productivity (FAO, 2014). In India, the total area under the cultivation of pulses is 294.65 Lakh hectares with the production of 22.95 million tons. Among these, 4.49 million hectares area is in blackgram cultivation with the production of 2.29 million tons (Directorate of Economics and Statistics (DES, 2017).
       
Indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers now-a-days, particularly nitrogenous and phosphorus, has led to substantial pollution of soil, air and water. These fertilizers are not only costly but also deplete nonrenewable resources, the oil and natural gas (Joshi et al., 2006). Excessive and long term use of these chemicals exerts deleterious effects on soil microorganism, affects the fertility status of soil hence reduces yield and also pollutes environment (Youssef and Eissa, 2014). The present agriculture policy in India is now giving emphasis on sustainable production system. Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Rhizobium is often associated with increased rates of plant growth, development and yield. The pleasant environment of microorganisms around the root zone (rhizosphere) is now becoming a major research target for the various scientists around the world. Also, micronutrients play an important role in black gram production. The majority of pulse-growing regions of India are low in zinc content and therefore, application of 1.5-5 kg Zn ha-1 alone or over and above the recommended doses of NPKS to different pulse crops are necessary. To combat the indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers, the present experiment was performed to study the influence of nutrient mobilizers on productivity and nutrient uptake in blackgram.
The experiment was conducted in the kharif season of 2016-17 and 2017-18 at the Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The soil of the experimental site has been classified as series II silty clay loam under the order Mollisol (Deshpande et al., 1971). The soil is dark coloured, imperfectly drained with moderately high organic matter content developed in loamy alluvial sediments averaging 0.6 to 1.0 meter thick over loamy sand, sand or gravel. The soil has high cation exchange capacity and water holding capacity and also contains about 90 per cent saturation. The eleven  treatments were as follows: T1 (Control), T2 (Rh (Rhizobium) + RDF), T3 (Rh + ZnSO4 @ 12.5 kg/ha + RDF), T4 (Rh + ZnSO4 @ 25.0 kg/ha + RDF), T5 (Rh + ZnO @ 14.0 kg/ha + RDF), T6 (Rh + ZnO @ 28.0 kg/ha + RDF), T7 (Rh + Zn Nm (Zinc nutrient mobilizer) + PGPR + RDF), T8 (Rh + Zn Nm + PGPR + ZnSO4 @ 12.5 kg/ha + RDF), T9 (Rh + Zn Nm + PGPR + ZnSO4 @ 25.0 kg/ha + RDF), T10 (Rh + Zn Nm + PGPR + ZnO @ 14.0 kg/ha + RDF) and T11 (Rh + Zn Nm + PGPR + ZnO @ 28.0 kg/ha + RDF) with blackgram  (PU-31) crop having a plot size 5 m ´ 4 m. The treatments were replicated thrice and laid out under randomized block design (RBD). After thorough field preparation initial soil samples were taken to analyze the initial soil properties. The initial soil sample was analyzed for major nutrients viz. available N, P, K, S and Zn; organic carbon (OC), pH and EC. The pH of the experimental field was 7.21, EC 0.18 dSm-1 and organic carbon was 0.69 per cent. The available N, P, K, S and Zn status of the experimental field was 148.25 kg ha-1, 17.07 kg ha-1, 168.70 kg ha-1, 8.65 ppm and 0.79 mg ha-1, respectively.
       
The observations on yield attributing characters were recorded on five randomly selected plants from each plot of each replication separately as per the standard method at the physiological maturity stage. The seed and straw yield was recorded from net plot area of each treatment.
       
For the assessment of nutrient content and uptake, the samples were collected for chemical analysis for nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc content in grain and straw. The nitrogen content was determined with Micro Kjeldhal’s method (Jackson, 1967). For phosphorous estimation, digestion of sample was done as per method No. 54 of 45 USDA, Handbook No. 60 using nitric acid and perchloric acid. Phosphorous was determined by vandomolybdo phosphoric acid yellow coloured method in HNO3 system as described by Jackson (1974).
       
Zinc was determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) method (Jackson, 1974). The data obtained by different treatments on various characters under study were analyzed by the method of analysis of variance as described by Gomez and Gomez (1984).
Yield and yield attributes
 
Among the different treatments, the average number of pods per plant from both the years ranged from 31.17 to 51.67 pods per plant (Table 1). Combined inoculation of Rhizobium, PGPR, zinc mobilizers and zinc fertilizers along with RDF recorded significantly more number of pods per plant ranging from 17.39 to 65.77 per cent over the uninoculated control. It can be clearly inferred from the table that the maximum number of pods per plant (51.67 pods plant-1) has been counted from the treatment T10 that was closely followed by T9 (51.00 pods plant-1). The longest pods (4.98 cm) have been measured in the treatment T7 followed by T10 (4.94 cm) which was at par with T9 (4.93 cm) whereas, shortest pods (3.13 cm) have been noted in the control. A significant increase of 59.11 per cent has been observed over the control in terms of pod length.
 

Table 1: Effect of combined inoculation of nutrient mobilizers on number of pods per plant, pod length, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight after harvest of urdbean.


       
The average number of seed per pod from both the years ranged from 3.74 to 6.00 seed pod-1. The maximum number of seed per pod (6.00 seed pod-1) has been found in the treatment T11 which was non-significantly different from T10 (5.85 seed pod-1) and T9 (5.51 seed pod-1) while, minimum number of seed per pod (3.74 seed pod-1) has been recorded in the control. Application of Rhizobium, PGPR, zinc mobilizers and zinc fertilizers along with RDF recorded significantly more number of seeds per pod ranging from 4.81 to 60.43 per cent over the uninoculated control. The average weight of the 1000-seeds from both the years ranged from 26.41 to 33.60 g. Data on 1000-seed weight revealed that mean maximum 1000-seed weight (33.60 g) among the different treatments has been found in T11 while, minimum weight (26.41 g) was recorded from the control. A significant increase of 27.22 per cent has been observed over the control in terms of 1000-seed weight.
       
Significant differences have been reported among the treatments regarding grain and straw yield. Maximum grain yield (1219.4 kg ha-1), straw yield (1337.5 kg ha-1) and harvest index (47.7 per cent) was also recorded in the treatment T11 which gave significantly 31.44, 17.27 and 6.2 per cent increase over control, respectively (Table 2 and Fig 1).
 

Table 2: Effect of combined inoculation of nutrient mobilizers on grain yield, straw yield and harvest index after harvest of urdbean.


 

Fig 1: Grain yield, straw yield and harvest index as affected by combined inoculation of nutrient mobilizers in urdbean.


       
Inoculation with nutrient mobilizers viz. Rhizobium and PGPR has found to increase the yield attributing characters in urdbean. Mishra et al., (2010) in field pea and Hosseini et al., (2014) in green gram noted a positive effect of dual inoculation of Rhizobium and PGPR and observed significant results on yield attributing characters. PGPR leads to the production of plant hormones (phytohormone) i.e., auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2015). These hormones when applied to the plants helps in their better growth and increase in the yield attributing characters (Frankenberger and Arshad, 1995). Also, these helps in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by enhancing root nodule number or mass, hence, better growth and development of the plants. The favourable effect of PGPR and Rhizobium may be attributed to increase in the activity of microorganisms due to synergistic association between them (Bhardwaj et al. 2014). They colonize the plant roots completely and enhance the plant’s growth by different mechanisms such as phosphate solubilization (Ahemad and Khan, 2012), formation of indole acetic acid (IAA), production of siderophores (Jahanian et al., 2012), 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and hydrogen cyanate (Liu et al., 2016); suppressed deleterious rhizobacteria (Kloepper and Schroth, 1981) and antibiotics or lytic enzymes (Xie et al., 2016).  Inoculation of the field with bacterial isolates (PGPR and Rhizobium) improved the photosynthetic efficiency maybe by accelerating the water and nutrients absorption that led to the production of more assimilate, thus, improving plant growth (Naseri and Mirzaei, 2010).
 
Nutrient content and uptake
 
Nitrogen content in grain and straw
 
From the Table 3, it can be concluded that not much significant difference has been found in the nitrogen content in the grain. The average numerical value ranged between 3.59 to 4.35 per cent in both the year which gave 8.00 to 60.41 per cent increase as compared to control. Maximum N content (4.35 per cent) has been recorded in the treatment T11 which was non-significantly different from treatment T10 (4.32 per cent) whereas, mean minimum was noticed in the control (3.59 per cent). Similarly, the maximum nitrogen content in the straw (2.03 per cent) has also been recorded in the treatment T11 followed by T10 (2.00 per cent). A significant increase of 40 per cent has been observed by the combined application of Rhizobium, PGPR, zinc mobilizers and zinc fertilizers along with RDF over the control.
 

Table 3: Effect of combined inoculation of nutrient mobilizers on nitrogen content and uptake in grain and straw after harvest of urdbean.


 
Nitrogen uptake in grain and straw
 
The average numerical value for N uptake in grain and straw ranged between 33.24 to 53.32 kg ha-1 and 16.48 to 27.16 kg ha-1, respectively (Table 3). Treatment T11 resulted in maximum nitrogen uptake in the grain (53.32 kg ha-1) and straw (27.16 kg ha-1) followed by treatment T10 (49.41 and 26.46 kg ha-1) whereas, minimum was noted from the control. A significant increase of 60.14 and 64.81 per cent has been observed over the control due to combined application of Rhizobium, PGPR, zinc mobilizers and zinc fertilizers along with RDF in grain and straw, respectively.
       
The effects of PGPR and Rhizobium on nitrogen contents in urdbean when compared with uninoculated control are conclusive and strongly indicate a possible role of these inoculants in providing nitrogen. Co-inoculation of PGPR and Rhizobium has led to the maximum nitrogen content (4.61 and 2.49 per cent) and uptake (165 and 568 mg plant-1)   in grain and straw than the control (2.92 and 1.76 per cent; 41 and 320 mg plant-1) in mungbean (Raza et al., 2004).  Similar results have been illustrated by Verma et al., (2010a) in chickpea, who observed increased content of nitrogen in seed (31.75 and 39.67 per cent) and straw (55.17 and 48.38 per cent) for two consecutive years. In a study by Zafar et al., (2012), inoculation of lentil with PGPR increased the nitrogen content in the seed and plant by an average of 25 and 29 per cent, respectively. They also recorded significant increase in nitrogen uptake in plants (range between 60 and 105 mg plant-1) with PGPR application, demonstrating a 28 to 123 per cent increase over the control (47 mg plant-1). The increase in nitrogen content consequently increased nitrogen uptake, which was certainly due to the nitrogen fixation by the PGPR. The increase in nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake by plants due to inoculation were in agreement with some previous studies (Abbasi et al., 2011). Increase in total nitrogen content and plant uptake could be due to nitrogen fixation and nitrate reductase activities of PGPR, or to the uptake of NH4+ and amino acids produced by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Osman et al., 2010).
 
Phosphorous content in grain and straw
 
A significant difference regarding the phosphorous content in the grain has been found among the different treatments (Table 4). The maximum phosphorous content in the grain (1.20 per cent) and straw (0.44 per cent) has been recorded in the treatment T11 while, the minimum (0.67 and 0.23 per cent) has been noted from the control (uninoculated). Due to the use of different nutrient mobilizers, an increase of 79.10 and 91.30 per cent has been noted in the grain and straw, respectively when compared to control.
 

Table 4: Effect of combined inoculation of nutrient mobilizers on phosphorous content and uptake in grain and straw after harvest of urdbean.


 
Phosphorous uptake in grain and straw
 
From the data presented in Table 4, it can be observed that the phosphorous uptake in the grain differed significantly among the treatments. The average phosphorous uptake in grain and straw ranged from 6.15 to 14.74 kg ha-1 and 2.62 to 5.93 kg ha-1 which gave 21.46 to 139.67 per cent and 15.65 to 126.34 per cent increase over the uninoculated (control). The maximum phosphorous uptake in the grain (14.74 kg ha-1) and straw (5.93 kg ha-1) has been recorded in the treatment T11.
       
The present results were in accordance with Verma et al., (2010a) who observed increased content of phosphorous in grain (52.78 and 34.21 per cent) and straw (36.04 and 33.04 per cent) for two consecutive years in chickpea. Similarly, Zafar et al., (2012) also observed increased phosphorous content in plant (0.42 to 0.71 per cent), grain (0.52 to 0.83 per cent) and uptake (17 to 35 mg/plant) by plants with the application of PGPR as compared to control (13 mg/plant). The increases in phosphorous content and uptake may partially be attributed to the production of a variety of organic acids by the PGPRs, which helps in decreasing soil pH, leading to the conversion of non-available phosphorous into available phosphorous. Soil microorganisms can also make phosphorous available to the plants by producing chelating substances, which leads to solubilization of phosphates (Osman et al., 2010). Cong et al., (2009) explained that the higher nutrient uptake was due to inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR that might attribute to morphological changes in the plant roots, especially increase in root number, length and its thickness. Co-inoculation of Rhizobium and PGPR has been reported more significant because Rhizobium is an effective nitrogen fixer while, PGPR stimulates plant growth by direct (production of phytohormone (IAA), improved nutrient acquisition increasing uptake of phosphorous from phosphate mineral solubilizing bacteria) and indirect mechanisms (suppression of plant diseases like wilt and root rot) (Verma et al., 2010b).
 
Zinc content in grain and straw
 
As observed from the Table 5, it can be opined that the zinc content in the grain differed significantly among all the treatments giving 6.77 to 68.26 per cent increase over the control. It was found that the maximum zinc content in the grain (34.56 ppm) and straw (15.02 ppm) has been recorded in the treatment T11 while the minimum content (20.54 and 9.82 ppm) has been noted from the control (uninoculated), respectively.
 

Table 5: Effect of combined inoculation of nutrient mobilizers on zinc content and uptake in grain and straw after harvest of urdbean.


 
 
Zinc uptake in grain and straw
 
As observed from the Table 5, it can be observed that the zinc uptake in the grain and straw differed significantly among the treatments and gave 11.53 to 121.17 per cent and 7.06 to 79.45 increases over the uninoculated (control). The maximum zinc uptake in the grain (42.20 g ha-1) and straw (20.08 g ha-1) has been recorded in the treatment T11 while, minimum was noted from the control.
       
It was also found that bacterial inoculation along with zinc application has led to an increased nutrient content and uptake in seed and straw (Ahmad et al., 2013).  Significantly maximum total zinc content (41.48 ppm) and uptake (654.66 g ha-1) has been recorded by Tiwari et al., (2018) with the inoculation of Rhizobium along with ZnSO4 and RDF in lentil. This increase may be due to the beneficial effect of micronutrients on bacterial intensification. It was reported that soil inoculation with beneficial microorganisms has the tendency of mobilizing unavailable forms of nutrient elements to available forms. This property has been successfully exploited for increasing the quality grain production (Ibrahim et al., 2010). This may also be due to the production of gluconic acid by bacterial isolates which enables solubilization of insoluble zinc and make it available to the plants (Vaid et al., 2014).
As the population is expanding day by day, there is a need to boost up the pulse production so as to fulfill the demands of the people. Experiment results revealed that urdbean responds significantly towards the incorporation of nutrient mobilizers in the soil and improves the productivity. On the basis of the experimental findings from field, it could be concluded that the treatment T11 which came up with the best in almost all the yield attributes may be followed for efficient nutrient management and more grain yields of urdbean during the Kharif season. However, the treatments T10 and Tnot showing much deviation from treatment T11 in terms of yield and yield attributes could also be followed for better economics and for realizing higher yield levels in kharif urdbean under the Tarai conditions of Uttarakhand. The success of this experiment could be very helpful in narrowing the gap between nutrient availability and increased nutrient content and uptake in the pulses especially phosphorous and zinc in urdbean on nutrient deficient soils.

  1. Abbasi, M.K., Sharif, S., Kazmi, M., Sultan, T. and Aslam, M. (2011). Isolation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on improving growth, yield and nutrient uptake of plants. Plant Biosyst. 145: 159-168.

  2. Ahemad, M. and Khan, M.S. (2012). Evaluation of plant-growth-promoting activities of rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida under herbicide stress. Ann. Microbiol. 62(4): 1531-1540.

  3. Ahmad, I., Akhtar, M.J., Asghar, H.N. and Khalid, M. (2013). Influence of rhizobium applied in combination with micronutrients on mungbean. Pak. J. Life Soc. Sci. 11(1): 53-59.

  4. Bhardwaj, D., Ansari, M.W., Sahoo, R.K., Tuteja, N. (2014). Biofertilizers function as keyplayer in sustainable agriculture by improving soil fertility, plant tolerance and crop productivity. Microbial. Cell Fact. 13(66): 1-10.

  5. Cong, P.T., Dung, T.D., Hien, T.M., Hien, N.T., Choudhury, A.T.M.A., Kecskes, M.L. and Kennedy, I.R. (2009). Inoculant plant growth-promoting microorganisms enhance utilisation of urea-N and grain yield of paddy rice in southern Vietnam. Eur. J. Soil Biol. 45: 52-61.

  6. Deshpande, S.B., Fehrenbacher, J.B. and Beavers, A.H. (1971). Mollisols of Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh, Northern India, 1. Morphology and Mineralogy. Geoderma. 6(3): 179-193.

  7. Directorate of Economics and Statistics (DES). (2017). Annual Report. Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Government of India Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi. Pp- 3-4.

  8. FAOSTAT (2016). FAO Statistic Division, Agriculture data. http://apps.fao.org/page/collections. 

  9. Frankenberger, W.T. Jr. and Arshad, M. (1995). Phytohormones in soil: Microbial production and function. Marcel Dekker Inc., NY., USA, ISBN: 08244794427, pp: 503.

  10. Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research (2 ed.). John wiley and sons, New York, 680p.

  11. Gopalakrishnan, S., Sathya, A., Vijayabharathi, R., Varshney, R.K., Gowda, C.L.L. and Krishnamurthy, L. (2015). Plant growth promoting rhizobia: challenges and opportunities. Biotech. 5: 355-377.

  12. Hosseini, A., Maleki, A., Fasihi, K. and Naseri, R. (2014). The co-application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and inoculation with rhizobium bacteria on grain yield and its components of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in Ilam province, Iran. International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. 8(7): 776-781.

  13. Ibrahim, M., Hassan, A., Arshad, M. and Tanveer, A. (2010). Variation in root growth and nutrient element of wheat and rice: effect of rate and type of organic materials. Soil and Environment. 29: 47-52.

  14. Jackson, M.L. (1974). Soil Chemical Analysis, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

  15. Jahanian, A., Chaichi, M.R., Rezaei, K., Rezayazdi, K. and Khavazi, K. (2012). The effect ofplant growth promoting rhizo- -bacteria (PGPR) on germination and primary growth of artichoke (Cynaras colymus). Int. J. Agric. Crop Sci. 4: 923-929.

  16. Joshi, K.K., Kumar, V., Dubey, R.C. and Maheshwari, D.K. (2006). Effect of chemical fertilizer adaptive variants, Pseudomonas aeruginosa GRC2 and Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 on Macrophomena phaseolina causing charcoal rot of Brassica juncea. Korean J. Environ. Agric. 25: 228-235.

  17. Kloepper, J.W. and Schroth, M.N. (1981). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plant growth under gnotobiotic conditions. Phytopathology. 71: 642-644.

  18. Liu, W., Wang, Q., Hou, J., Tu, C., Luo, Y. and Christie, P. (2016). Whole genome analysis of halotolerant and alkalotolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Klebsiella sp. D5A Sci. Rep. 6: 26710.

  19. Mishra, K., Prasad and Geeta, R. (2010). Effect of bio-fertilizer inoculations on growth and yield of dwarf field pea (Pisum sativum L.) in conjunction with different doses of chemical fertilizers. Journal of Agronomy. 9: 163-168.

  20. Naseri, R. and Mirzaei, A. (2010). Response of yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to seed inoculation with Azotobacter and Azospirillum and different nitrogen levels under dry land conditions. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 9(4): 445- 449.

  21. Osman, M.E.H., El-Sheekh, M.M., El-Naggar, A.H., Saly, F. and Gheda, S.F. (2010). Effect of two species of cyanobacteria as biofertilizers on some metabolic activities, growth and yield of pea plant. Biol. Fert. Soils. 46: 861-875.

  22. Pingoliya, K.K., Mathur, A.K., Dotaniya, M.L., Jajoria, D.K. and Narolia, G.P. (2014). Effect of phosphorus and iron levels on growth and yield attributes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under agro-climatic zone IV of Rajasthan, India. Legume Research. 37(5): 537-541.

  23. Raza, W., Akhtar, M., Muhammad, A. and Yousaf, S. (2004). Growth, nodulation and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) as influenced by co-inoculation with Rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Pak. J Agri. Sci. 41: 125-130.

  24. Tiwari, A.K., Prakash, V., Ahmad, A. and Singh, R.P. (2018). Effect of biofertilizers and micronutrients on nutrient uptake, growth, yield and yield attributes of lentil (Lens culinaris L.). Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 7(2): 3269-3275.

  25. Vaid, S.K., Kumar, B., Sharma, A., Shukla, A.K. and Srivastava, P.C. (2014). Effect of zinc solubilizing bacteria on growth promotion and zinc nutrition of rice. J Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 14(4): 889-910.

  26. Verma, J.P., Yadav, J. and Tiwari, K.N. (2010a). Application of Rhizobium sp. BHURC01 and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on nodulation, plant biomass and yields of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.). Int. J. Agric. Res. 5: 148-156.

  27. Verma J.P., Yadav J., Tiwari K N., Lavakush and Singh, V. (2010b). Impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on crop production. Int. J. Agric. Res. 5(11): 954-983.

  28. Xie, J., Shi, H., Du, Z., Wang,T., Liu, X. and Chen, S. (2016). Comparative genomic and functional analysis reveal conservation of plant growth promoting traits in Paeni-bacillus polymyxa and its closely related species. Sci. Rep. 6: 21329.

  29. Youssef, M.M.A. and Eissa, M.F.M. (2014). Biofertilizers and their role in management of plant parasitic nematodes. E J Biotechnol Pharm Res. 5: 1-6.

  30. Zafar, M., Abbasi, M.K., Khan, M.A., Khaliq, A., Sultan, T. and Aslam, M. (2012). Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on growth, nodulation and nutrient accumulation of lentil under controlled conditions. Pedosphere. 22(6): 848-859.

Editorial Board

View all (0)