Chief EditorJ. S. Sandhu
Print ISSN 0250-5371
Online ISSN 0976-0571
NAAS Rating 6.67
Impact Factor 0.8 (2023)
Productivity and profitability of maize (Zea mays) as influenced by intercropping of rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris) and nutrient management techniques under sub-alpine conditions of Jammu, India
First Online 28-07-2016|
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011 and 2012 at Sartangal to study the effect of intercropping and nutrient management on productivity and profitability of cultivating maize under sub-alpine conditions of Jammu. The inter-cropping systems were sole maize, sole rajmash, maize + rajmash in a 1:1 row (1 rows of maize alternating with 1 row of rajmash) and maize + rajmash in 2:1 row (2 rows of maize alternating with 1 row of rajmash). The nutrient management treatments were, T1 =control (no fertility), T2 = 100% NPK (RDF, recommended dose of fertilizers), T3 = 75% RDF + 25% N through farmyard manure (FYM) and T4=50% RDF + 50% N (FYM). Among cropping system maize + rajmash (1:1) produced highest maize grain equivalent yield (MEY, 7772 kg ha-1), net returns (INR 52190 ha-1), B:C ratio (1.81), land equivalent ratio (LER, 1.40) and area time equivalent ratio (ATER, 1.38). Whereas among nutrient management techniques, 75% RDF + 25% N (FYM) produced highest MEY (7681 kg ha-1), net returns (INR 52585 ha-1) and B:C ratio of 1.88 with highest LER (1.36) and ATER (1.33).
- Agarwal, P.K., Garrity, D.P., Liboon, S.P. and Morris. R.A. (1992). Resource-use and plant interaction in a rice-mungbean intercrop. Agron. J. 84: 71-78.
- Ahmad, N. and Saeed, M. (1998). Resource-use efficiency of some wheat-based intercropping systems at different patterns of wheat plantation. Pak. J. Agric. Res. 35: 52-54.
- Anil, L., Park, J., Philips, R.H., Miller, F.A. (1998). Temperate intercropping of cereals for forage: a review of the potential for growth and utilization with particular reference UK. Grass Forage Sci.; 53: 301-317.
- Aynehband, A. and Behrooz, M. (2011). Evaluation of cereal legume and cereal pseudo-cereal intercropping systems through forage productivity and competition ability. American Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ.Sci., 10: 675-683.
- Banik, P. and Bagchi, D.K. (1996). A proposal ondex for assersment of row replacement intercropping system. J.Agron.crop Sci. 177:161-164.
- Banik, P., Midya, A., Sarkar, B.K. and Ghose, S.S. (2006). Wheat and chickpea intercropping systems in an additive series experiment :advantage and weed smothering. Europ. J. Agronomy 24: 325-332.
- Caballero, R., Goicoechea, E.L., and Hernaiz, P.J. (1995). Forage yields and quality of common vetch and oat sown at varying seeding ratios and seeding rates of common vetch. Field Crop Res. 41: 135-140.
- Charak, A.S., Shrivastava, J.N., Kotwal, N., Raina, V. and Manhas, J.S. (2012). Assesment of technology gap and productivity through FLD in frenchbean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on farmer’s field. Indian Journal of Social Research 53: 69-73.
- Chen, C., Westcott, M., Neill, K., Wichman, D. and Knox, M. (2004). Row configuration and nitrogen application for barley–pea intercropping in Montana. Agron. J. 96: 1730-1738.
- Chui, J. N. (1988) Effect of maize intercrop and nitrogen rates on the performance and nutrient uptake of an associated bean intercrop. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 53: 93-104.
- De Wit, C.T. (1960). On competition. Versl. Landbouwk, Onderzoek 66: 1-82.
- Dhima, K.V., Lithourgidis, A.S., Vasilakoglou I.B., and Dordas, C.A. (2007). Competition indices of common vetch and cereal intercrops in two seeding ratio. Field Crops Res., 100: 249-256
- Ganajaxi (2008). Production potential of different cropping systems with french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in northern transition zone of Karnataka. Ph.D thesis. Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture, Dharwad, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad.
- Ghosh, P.K., Bandyopadhyay, K.K., Manna, M.C., Mandal, K.G., Misra, A.K., Hati, K.M. (2004). Comparative effectiveness of cattle manure, poultry manure, phosphocompost and fertilizer NPK on three cropping systems in vertisols of semi-arid tropics. II. Dry matter yield, nodulation, chlorophyll and enzyme activity. Bioresour. Technol. 95: 85–93.
- Ghosh, P.K., Mohanty, M., Bandyopadhyay, K.K., Painuli, D.K. and Misra, A.K. (2006). Growth, competition, yields advantage and economics in soybean / pigeonpea intercropping system in semi-arid tropics of India II. Effect of nutrient management. Field Crops Research 96: 90–97.
- Hiebsch, C.K. and McCollum, R.E. (1987). Area x time equivalency ratio. A method for evaluating the productivity of intercrops. Agron. J. 79: 15-22.
- Jabbar, A., Ahmad, R., Bhatti, I.H., Virk, Z. A., Din, W. and Khan, M. M. ( 2009). Assessment of yield advantages, competitiveness and economic benefits of diversified direct-seeded upland rice-based intercropping systems under strip geometry of planting. Pak. J. Agri. Sci., Vol. 46: 96-101.
- McGillchrist, I.A. (1965). Analysis of competition experiments. Biometrics 21: 975-985.
- Morris, R.A. and Garrity. (1993). Resource capture and utilization in intercropping: Non-nitrogen nutrients. Field Crop Res. 34: 319-334.
- Nazir, M.S., Elahi, E., Jabbar, A., Saeed, M. and Ahmad, R. (1997). Bio-economic assessment ofdifferent wheat-based intercropping systems. Pak. J. Agric. Sci. 34: 62-64.
- Pandey, I.B., Dwivedi, D.K., and Pandey, R.K. (2009).Integrated nutrient management for sustaining wheat (Triticum aestivum) production under late sown conditions.Indian J. Agron.54:306-309.
- Patra, A.P. and Chatterjee, B.N.( 1986). Intercropping of soybean with rice, maize and pigeonpea in the plains of West Bengal. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 56: 413-417.
- Rao, R.B.K., Sahrawat, K.L., Wani, S.P., and Pardhasaradhy, G.(2010).Integrated nutrient management to enhance on- farm productivity of rain fed maize in India. Int.J.Soil Sci. 5 : 216-225.
- Salomon, E. (1990). Maize bean intercrop system in Nicaragua. Effect of plant arrangements and population densities on the land equivalent ratio (LER), relative yield total (RYT) and weed abundance. Working paper, International Rural Development Center, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, p. 35.
- Singh, L., Singh, J.K., Chand, L. and Hasan, B. (2009). Productivity,economics and competitive indices of lentil(Lens culinaris)-based intercropping systems in Kashmir valley. Indian J. Agron. 54:291-295.
- Singh, G., Singh, O.P., Kumar, M., Rajput, A.L. and Murya, S.(1996). Effect of intercrops on yield and economics, weeds and pest infestation of deep water rice. Allals Agric. Res. 17: 14-17.
- Takim, F.O. (2012). Advantages of maize-cowpea intercropping over sole cropping through competition indices. Journal of Agriculture and Biodiversity Research.1:53-59.
- Tetarwal J.P., Ram, B. and Meena , D.S. (2011). Effect of integrated nutrient management on productivity,profitability,nutrient uptake and soil fertility in rainfed maize(Zea mays). Indian J. Agron. 56:280-296.
- Tsubo, M., Walker, S. and Mukhala, E. (2001). Comparisons of radiation use efficiency of mono-inter-cropping systems with different row orientations. Field Crops Res. 71: 17-29.
- Willey, R.W., Matarajan, M., Reddy, M.S., Rao, M.R., Nambiar, P.T.C., Kammainan J. and Bhatanagar, V.S. (1980). Intercropping studies with annual crops. In “Better crops for food”. J.C.Homeless (ed) Ciba Foundation Symp. pp. 83.97.
- Yilmaz, F., Atak, M. , Erayman, M.(2008). Identification of advantages of maize-legume intercropping over solitary cropping through competition indices in the east mediterranean region.Turk. J. Agric.For. 32 :111-119
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.