Effect of drought on growth, physiological and biochemical processes of chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis

DOI: 10.18805/lr.v0iOF.3771    | Article Id: LR-289 | Page : 94-99
Citation :- Effect of drought on growth, physiological and biochemicalprocesses of chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis .Legume Research.2017.(40):94-99

Ahmed Khadraji1, Cherki Ghoulam*1

Address :

Unit of Plant Biotechnology and Symbiosis Agro-physiology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, PO. Box 549, Gueliz 40000 Marrakesh, Morocco. 

Submitted Date : 28-04-2016
Accepted Date : 15-09-2016


The effects of drought on growth, several physiological and biochemical processes in six winter varieties (Zhour, Rizki, Douyet, V46, V34 and P37) of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and two rhizobial strains (MC07 and MC10) were studied. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Seedlings were grown under three regimes moistening and inoculated separately: 100 % of field capacity (control), 80% of field capacity (optimal irrigation) and 40% of field capacity (water deficit). The results showed that the hydric deficit had significantly perturbed the dry biomass, proline activity, total chlorophyll and nitrogen contents. Moreover, this constraint negatively affected the water deficit saturation (WDS), the membrane permeability and the stomatal conductance of leaves. Under drought, the varieties Zhour and Rizki showed a better water efficiency that was translated by high level in proline accumulation, membrane stability, total chlorophyll and nitrogen contents. These parameters were maintained at the adequate levels with the rhizobial strain MC07 which showed a tolerance in the drought condition. On the contrary, the symbiotic combination least powerful according to the studied parameters is formed by the variety P37-MC10. 


Chickpea Drought Nitrogen contents Proline activity Tolerance WDS.


  1. Antolín MC, Muro L and Sánchez-Díaz M. (2010). Application of sewage sludge improves growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant activities of nodulated alfalfa plants under drought conditions. Environ. Exper. Bot. 68: 75-82
  2. Aranjuelo I, Molero G, Erice G, Avice JC. and Nogue S. (2011). Plant physiology and proteomics reveals the leaf response to drought in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). J. Exp. Bot. 62: 111–123
  3. Arnon DI. (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts: ployphenol-oxydase in Beta vulgaris L. Plant. Physiol. 24:1-15
  4. Ashraf M and Iram AT. (2005). Drought stress induced changes in some organic substances in nodules and other plant parts of two potential legumes differing in salt tolerance. Flora. 200: 535-546
  5. Bargaz A, Faghire M, Farissi M, Drevon JJ, Ghoulam C. (2013). Oxidative stress in the root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is induced under conditions of phosphorus deficiency. Acta. Physiol. Plant. 35:1633-1644
  6. Bates L, Waldren RP, Teare JD. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant. Soil. 39:205-    207
  7. Benjamin J, Nielsen D, (2006). Water deficit effects on root distribution of soybean, field pea and chickpea. J. Field. Crops. Res. 97: 248-253
  8. Ben Romdhane S, Trabelsi M, Aouani ME, De Lajudie P and Mhamdi R. (2009). The diversity of rhizobia nodulating chickpea (Cicer arietinum) under water deficiency as a source of more efficient inoculants. Soil. Biol. Biochem. 41: 2568-2572
  9. Chandrasekar V, Sairam RK, Srivastava GC. (2000). Physiological and biochemical responses of hexaploid and tetraploid wheat to drought stress. J. Agron. Crop. Sci. 185:219–227
  10. Conroy JP, Virgona JM, Smillie RM, Barlow EWR. (1988). Influence of drought acclimation and CO2 enrichment on osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll a flurescence of sunflower during drought. Plant. Physiol. 86:1108-1115 
  11. Dhanda SS, Sethi GS, Behl RK. (2004). Indices of drought tolerance in wheat genotypes at early stages of plant growth. J. Agr. Crop. Sci. 190 : 6-12
  12. Farissi M, Bouizgaren A, Faghire M, Bargaz A, Ghoulam C. (2011). Agro-physiological responses of Moroccan alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations to salt stress during germination and early seedling stages. Seed. Sci. Techno. 39: 389-401 
  13. Farissi M, Bouizgaren A, Faghire M, Bargaz A and Ghoulam C. (2013a). Agrophysiological and biochemical properties associated with tolerance of Medicago sativa population to water deficit. Turk. J. Bot. 37: 1166-1175
  14. Farissi M, Ghoulam C, Bouizgaren A. (2013). Changes in water deficit saturation and photosynthetic pigments of alfalfa populations under salinity and assessment of proline role in salt tolerance. Agric. Sci. Res. J. 3: 29-35
  15. Farooq, M., Wahid, A., Kobayashi, N., Fujita, D. and Barsa, S.M.A., (2009). Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 29: 153–188
  16. Figueiredo MVB, Burity HLA, Martïnez CR and Chanway CP. (2008). Alleviation of drought stress in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by co-inoculation with Paenibacillus polymyxa and Rhizobium tropici. Appl. Soil. Ecol. 40: 182- 188
  17. Ghoulam C, Foursy A and Fares K. (2002). Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environ. Exper. Bot. 47: 39-50 
  18. Ghosh PK, Ajay KK, Bandyopadhyay MC, Manna KG and Mandal AK. (2004). Comparative effectiveness of cattle manure, poultry manure, phosphocompost and fertilizer-NPK on three cropping system in vertisols of semi-arid tropics. Dry matter yield, nodulation. Chlorophyll content and enzyme activity. Bioresour. Technol. 95: 85-93
  19. Grzesiak S, Iijima M, Kono Y and Yamauchi A. (1997). Differences in drought tolerance between cultivars of field bean and field pea. A comparison of drought- resistant and drought-sensitive cultivars. Acta. Physiol. Plant. 3: 349-357
  20. Gunes A, Inal A, Adak MS, Bagci EG, Cicek N, Eraslan F. (2008). Effect of drought stress implemented at pre- or post- anthesis stage some physiological as screening criteria in chickpea cultivars. Russian. J. Plant. Physiol. 55:59-67
  21. Guo PG, Baum M, Varshney RK, Graner A, Grando S, Ceccarelli S. (2008). QTLs for chlorophyll and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in barley under post-flowering drought. Euphytica.163:203-214.
  22. Jayashree B, Hutokshi KB, Sanjeev S, Jonathan HC. (2005). A legume genomics resource: The Chickpea Root Expressed Sequence Tag Database. Elect. J. Biotech. 8: 128-133
  23. Jamil M, Rehman S, Lee KJ, Kim JM, Kim HS, Rha ES. (2007). Salinity reduced growth PS II photochemistry and chlorophyll content in radish. Sci. Agric. 64: 1-10
  24. Kalefetoglu Macar T, Ekmekci Y. (2009). Alterations in photochemical and physiological activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars under drought stress. J. Agron. Crop. Sci. 195: 335–346
  25. Kashiwagi J, Krishnamurthy L, Gaur PM, Upadhyaya HD, Varshney RK, Tobita S. (2013). Traits of relevance to improve yield under terminal drought stress in chickpea (C. arietinum L.). Field. Crop. Res. 145: 88–95
  26. Kumar J, Abbo S. (2001). Genetics of flowering time in chickpea and its bearing on productivity in semiarid environments. In: Spaks, D.L. (Ed.), Advances in Agronomy, vol.2. Academic press, New York, p.122
  27. Leport L, Turner NC, French RJ, Barr MD, Duda R, Davies SL, Tennant D, Siddique KHM. (1999). Physiological responses of chickpea genotypes to terminal drought in a Mediterranean type environment. Eur. J. Agron. 11: 279-291
  28. Leport L, Turner NC, Davies SL and Siddique KHM. (2006). Variation in pod production and abortion among chickpea cultivars under terminal drought. Eur. J. Agron. 24: 236-246 
  29. Lodwig E and Poole P. (2003). Metabolism of Rhizobium bacteroids. Crit. Rev. Plant. Sci. 22: 37-78
  30. Mafakheri A, Siosemardeh A, Bahramnejad B, Struik PC, Sohrabi Y. (2010). Effect of drought stress on yield, proline and chlorophyll contents in three chickpea cultivars. Aust. J. Crop. Sci. 4: 580–585
  31. Masson-Boivin C, Giraud E, Perret X and Batut J. (2009). Establishing nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with legumes: how many rhizobium recipes?. Trends. Microbiol. 17: 458–466
  32. Morgan JM. (1984). Osmoregulation and water stress in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 35: 299-319 
  33. Pala, M., Mazid, A. (1992). On farm assessment of improved crop production practices in northwest Syria. I. Chickpeas.Exp. agr. 28: 175-184
  34. Rosales MA, Ocampo E, Rodríguez-Valentín R, Olvera-Carrillo Y, Acosta-Gallegos J and Covarrubias AA, (2012). Physiological analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars uncovers characteristics related to terminal drought resistance. Plant. Physiol. Biochem. 56: 24 – 34. 
  35. Routley DG. (1966). Proline accumulation in wilted ladino clover leaves. Crop. Sci. 6: 358-361. 
  36. Silva MA, Jifon JL, da Silva JAG, Sharma V. (2007). Use of physiological parameters as fast tools to screen for drought tolerance in sugarcane. Braz. J. Plant. Physiol. 19: 193-201.
  37. Soltani A, Ghassemi-Golezani K, Khooie FR and Moghaddem M. (1999). A simple model for chickpea growth and yield. Field. Crops. Res. 62: 213-224.
  38. Turner NC, Abbo S, Berger JD, Chaturvedi SK, French RJ, Ludwig C, Mannur DM, Singh SJ, Yadava HS. (2007). Osmotic adjustment in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) results in no yield benefit under terminal drought. J. Exp. Bot. 58: 187–194.
  39. Xiong L, Wang RG, Mao G, Koczan JM. (2006). Identification of drought tolerance determinants by genetic analysis of root response to drought stress and abscisic acid. Plant. Physiol. 142: 1065-1074.

Global Footprints