Article Id: ARCC529 | Page : 185-193
G.V. Ramana, Sweta Padma Padhy and K.V. Chaitanya* viswanatha.chaitanya@gmail.com
Address : Department of Biotechnology, GITAM Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam-530 045, India


Salinity stress-induced morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of four soybean cultivars (MAU-61, LSB-1, NRC-37 and MACS-57) were studied in 30 days old plants by treating them with 100 mM, 200 mM and 300 mM concentrations of NaCl respectively. The effect of salinity on plant growth was studied by measuring the growth of the plant, branch length, leaf area. The water relations of soybean cultivars under salinity were estimated by studying the relative water contents and water uptake capacity. The response of the soybean plants to salinity stress was analysed by estimating the levels of carbohydrates, total free amino acids, proline, glycine betaine along with the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and sucrose phosphate synthase. Carbohydrates and SPS activity were decreased in the soybean plants under salinity stress whereas the contents of proline, glycine betaine and total free amino acids were increased along with superoxide dismutase activity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed the accumulation of two SOD isoenzymes Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn SOD under salinity stress. Differential expression of these enzymes
showed that the expression of these enzymes under salinity stress was high in roots. This study reveals that the varieties NRC-37 and MACS-57 showed a better performance under salinity stress, when compared to that of MAU-61 and LSB-1 which was very well correlated with their
biomass contents.


Salinity stress Soybean Carbohydrates Water relations Osmolytes
Superoxide dismutase.


  1. Alscher, R.G. Erturk, N. Heath, L.S. (2002). Role of superoxide dismutase (SODs) in controlling oxidative stress in plants. J. Exp. Bot., 53:1331-1341.
  2. Apel, K. Hirt, H. (2004). Reactive oxygen species: Metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction Ann. Rev. Plant Biol., 55:373-399.
  3. Attia, H. Arnaud, N. Karray, H. Lachaa, M. (2008) Long-term effects of mild salt stress on growth, ion accumulation and superoxide dismutase expression of Arabidopsis rosette leaves. Physiol Plant., 132:293-305.
  4. Attia, H. Karray, N. Lachaâl, M. (2009). Light interacts with salt stress in regulating superoxide dismutase gene expression in Arabidopsis. Plant Sci., 177:161-167.
  5. Bartels, D. Sunkar, R. (2005). Drought and salt tolerance in plants. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci., 24:23-58.
  6. Bates, L.S. Walderen, R.P. Teare, I.D. (1975). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil, 39:205-207.
  7. Beauchamp, C. Fridovich, I. (1971). Superoxide dismutases: improved assays and an assay predictable to acrylamide gels. Anal. Biochem., 44:276-287.
  8. Chaitanya, K.V. Spandana, M.S. Srinivas, D. Kumar, A.L. (2009). Antioxidative responses of soybean (Glycine max. L) seedlings to salinity stress. J. Plant Biol., 36:83-87.
  9. Chen, T.H.H. Murata, N. (2002). Enhancement of tolerance of abiotic stress by metabolic engineering of betaines and other compatible solutes. Curr. Opi. Plant Biol., 5:250-257.
  10. Cuin, T.A. Shabala, S. (2007). Compatible solutes reduce ROS-induced potassium efflux in Arabidopsis roots. Plant Cell Environ., 30:875-885.
  11. Dhindsa, R.S. Matowe, W. (1981). Drought tolerance in two mosses: correlated with enzymatic defense against lipid peroxidation. J. Exp. Bot., 32:72-91.
  12. Dubois, M. Gilles, K.A. Hamilton, J.K. Rebers, P.A. Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for the determination of sugars and related substances. Anal. Biochem., 28:350-356.
  13. Fatma, T. Jean-Jacques, D. Mustapha, T. (2012). Flamingo is a new common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotype with tolerance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation to moderate salinity African J. Agric. Res., 7:2016-2024.
  14. Farouk, S. (2011). Osmotic adjustment in wheat flag leaf in relation to flag leaf area and grain yield per plant. J. Stress Physiol. Biochem. 7:117-138.
  15. GoÂmez, J.M. JimeÂnez, A. Olmos, E. Sevilla, F. (2004). Location and effects of long-term NaCl stress on superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes of pea (Pisum sativum cv. Puget) chloroplasts. J. Exp. Bot., 55:119-130.
  16. Gill, T. Sanjay, K. Paramvir Singh, A. Yelam, S. (2010). Over-expression of Potentilla superoxide dismutase improves salt stress tolerance during germination and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana J. Plant Genet. and Transgenics, 1:1-10.
  17. Hayashi, H. Alia, M. L. Deshnium, P. Ida, M. Murata, N. (1997). Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana with the codA gene for choline oxidase; accumulation of glycine betaine and enhanced tolerance to salt and cold stress. Plant J., 12:133-142.
  18. Huber, S.C. (1981). Interspecific variation in the activity and regulation of leaf sucrose phosphate synthase. Z. Pflanzen physiol., 102:443-450.
  19. Jaleel, C.A. (2008). Europe Asia Journal of Bio Sciences, 2(1):18-25.
  20. KaviKishor, P.B. Hong, Z. Miao, G-H. Hu, C.-A. A. Verma, D. P. S. (1995). Over-expression of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase increases proline production and confers osmotolerance in transgenic plants. Plant Physiol., 108:1387-1394.
  21. Koca, M. (2007). The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes and proline content of sesame cultivars. Environ. Exp. Bot., 60:344-351.
  22. Kranner, I. (2002). Revival of resurrection plant correlates with its antioxidant status. Plant J., 31:13-24.
  23. Laemmli, U. K. (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature, 227:680-685.
  24. Lu, S. Li, T. Jing, J. (2010). Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit development. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9:842-849.
  25. Moore, S. and Stein, W.H. (1954). A modified ninhydrin reagent for the photometric determination of amino acids and related compounds J. Biol. Chem., 211:807-912.
  26. Mustafa, H. (2012). Effects of salinity stress on growth, chlorophyll content and osmotic components of two basil (Ocimumbasilicum L.) genotypes. African J. Biotechnol., 11:379-384.
  27. Noppawan, N. Phan, T. N. Piyada, T. (2012). Exogenous proline and trehalose promote recovery of rice seedlings from salt-stress and differentially modulate antioxidant enzymes and expression of related genes. J. Plant Physiol., 169:596-604.
  28. Parre, E. Mohamed Ali, G. Anne-Sophie, L. Laurent, T. Delphine, L. Marianne, B. Luc, R. Christian, M. Chedly, A. Arnould, S. (2007). Calcium signaling via phospholipase CIS essential for proline accumulation upon ionic but not nonionic hyperosmotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol., 144:503-512.
  29. Ramachandra Reddy, A. Reddy, K.R. Hodges, H.F. (1996). Mepiquat chloride (PIX)- induced changes in photosynthesis and growth of cotton. Plant Growth Reg., 20:179-183.
  30. Rathert, G. (1984). Sucrose and starch content of plant parts as possible indicator for salt tolerance of crops. Aust. J. Plant Physiol., 11:491-495.
  31. Seyed, M. Shahab, J. Bahram, A. Mohammad, Z. Rasool, A.Z. Majid, K. (2011). Soil salinity alters the morphology in Catharanthus roseus and its effects on endogenous mineral constituents. Middle-East J. Scientific Res., 7:07-11.
  32. Shiwani, M. Shashi, M. Sunita, S. (2010). Differential response in salt tolerant and sensitive genotypes of wheat interms of ascorbate, carotenoids proline and plant water relations. Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci., 1:792- 797.
  33. Storey, R. Wyn Jones, R.G. (1977). Quaternary ammonium compounds in plants in relation to salt resistance. Phytochem., 169: 447-453.
  34. Wang, J. (2010). Identification of genetic factors influencing salt stress tolerance in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) by QTL analysis. Theor. Appl. Gen., 120:607-619.
  35. Win, K.T. (2011). Genetic analysis of Myanmar Vigna species in responses to salt stress at the seedling stage. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10:1615-1624.
  36. Zhang, H. Hezhong, D. Weijiang, Li. Yi, S. Shouyi, C. Xiangqiang, K. (2009). Increased glycine betaine synthesis and salinity tolerance in AhCMO transgenic cotton lines Mol. Breeding, 23:289-298.

Global Footprints