Chief EditorT. Mohapatra
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Full Research Article
Assessment of Frontline Demonstration on Rice Production in Telangana
Methods: Frontline demonstrations (FLD) on rice with recently released short-duration varieties, RNR 15048 and KNM 118 and proven technologies in crop production and crop protection were conducted on farmer’s fields by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kampasagar, PJTSAU, Nalgonda, Telangana during the kharif seasons of 2017-2019.
Result: Higher mean yield (6314.0 kg ha-1) was obtained in improved varieties RNR 15048 and KNM 118 with the latest agro-technologies such as seed treatment with carbendazim @ 1g lt-1 of water, seed rate @ 62.5 kg ha-1, application of carbofuran 3G in rice nursery, recommended dose of fertilizers in the main field, need-based plant protection practices such as formation of alleyways, installation of pheromone traps at 25 DAT, application of carbofuran 3G @ 25 kg ha-1, spraying of Pymetrozine @ 250 g ha-1 to control brown plant hopper in rice against the local check MTU 1010 (5823.0 kg ha-1) in the farmers’ practice and on an average 8.3% superiority was observed over the farmer’s practice. Yield contributing traits like plant height (85.3 cm), number of tillers m-2 (343.3), effective tillers m-2 (319.0), panicle length (21.0 cm) and straw yield (4904.3 kg ha-1) were maximum in improved practice against the farmers’ practice, except test weight (24.7 g). Improved practices resulted in higher gross returns (Rs. 1, 10, 890 ha-1), net returns (Rs. 61,675 ha-1) and B: C ratio (1:2.3) than the farmer’s practice.
Front line demonstrations (FLDs) on rice include recently released early maturing, high yielding, fine/bold grained, disease resistant varieties with integrated nutrient management (INM), integrated weed management (IWM) and integrated pest management (IPM) in farmers’ field may be useful (Teekam et al., 2015). Early duration rice varieties RNR 15048 (fine grain) and KNM 118 (bold grain) have the potential grain yields of 7.0 to 7.5 t ha-1 and are suitable for both kharif and rabi seasons. These varieties mature in 120-125 days in both the seasons which helps to escape heavy rain fall at the time of harvesting i.e., November and March during kharif and rabi, respectively. The lack of improved high yielding varieties, prolonged dry spells, constant warm temperature and high moisture levels that encourage the prevalence of pest and diseases (Samant, 2017), delayed sowing, lack of quality seed, imbalanced fertilizer use and weeds are contributing to the low yields in farmer’s fields (Zamir et al., 2014). As a result, there is a significant yield gap between farmer’s yield and potential yield. Short-duration rice varieties are best suited for growing two or three crops per year (Bagchi et al., 2012), whereas recently developed short-duration cultivars have good grain quality, photo insensitive (Islam et al., 2016). These are more favourable to escape insect damage, non-lodging, sale the produce at a higher price due to early arrival in the market (Xu et al., 2018), reduce greenhouse gas emissions (Hasan, 2014) and escape drought (Ohno et al., 2018).
Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU) consistently conducted rigorous research in the field of crop improvement, released and notified new short duration rice varieties i.e., RNR 15048 and KNM 118 in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Telangana Sona (RNR-15048) is semi-tall (100 to 115 cm), with short duration (125 days), high yielding (6.5-7.0 t ha-1) with 10-15 ear bearing tillers and long panicle (24-25 cm) and short slender and super fine variety. It is resistant to blast and less BPH incidence, suitable for late sowing conditions. The variety has more than 67% of head rice recovery. Low Glycemic Index variety of 51.0 (Chandramohan et al., 2021). The rice culture, KNM 118 is a good alternate variety to mega rice variety, MTU 1010 as it exhibits high yield potential (7.0-8.0 t ha-1) with good test weight and is less prone to grain shattering and lodging at the time of harvest when compared to MTU 1010. It has plant height of 100-106 cm (semi-dwarf) and tolerance to leaf and neck blast and outperformed MTU 1010 in terms of yield, less grain shattering, lodging and disease resistance (Tamilazhaki et al., 2020). Hence, FLDs were planned to assess the performance of newly introduced rice varieties i.e., RNR 15048 and KNM 118 during three consecutive kharif seasons from 2017 to 2019 under real farm situations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The mean higher gross returns, net returns and B: C ratio were recorded in improved practice were Rs. 1,10,890.0 ha-1, Rs. 61,765.0 ha-1 and 2.3, respectively than the farmer’s practice Rs. 1,01,157.5 ha-1, Rs. 47,150.0 ha-1 and 1.9, respectively (Table 1). This might be due to the adoption of recently released high yielding short duration rice varieties, soil test-based fertilizer application, timely transplanting and plant protection measures, regular field monitoring, diagnostic visits, contact phone calls with farmers and farmer-scientist interaction meetings that reduced the cost of cultivation and gained higher net returns and high benefit-cost ratio in demonstration plots over the control plots during the three years of study. The variation in net return and benefit-cost ratio in the years of the study may be attributed to the variation in the price of agri inputs and produce as well. These findings were in agreement with that of Mandavkar et al., (2012) in rice. Similarly, Samant (2017); Verma et al., (2016) and Mitra et al., (2014) reported that FLDs on rice recorded maximum net returns with a high B: C ratio. Mubark and Shakoor (2019) also obtained maximum gross returns, net returns and B: C ratio in FLDs with improved technologies in rice. Madanmohan et al., (2021) and Jayalakshmi et al., (2021) observed higher gross returns, net returns and benefit-cost ratio in demonstrations as compared to farmer’s practice.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
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