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Full Research Article
Effect of Integrated Weed Management Practices on Weed Dynamics and Performance of Maize Crop
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First Online 14-10-2021|
Background: Maize is the third most important cereal in India after rice and wheat which contributes nearly 9% in national food basket. Weed infestation is a major problem in maize, primarily at initial growth stages and due to wider spacing, hence weed control is essential to reduce the competition with maize crop. In maize row to row spacing is more so maximum number of weeds appears and compete with main crop.
Methods: A field experiment was conducted in the University Agricultural Farm under the Department of Agronomy in kharif 2019. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam in texture having pH 6.87 and electrical conductivity 0.32 mmhos/cm. The experiment was comprised of eight treatments and laid out in randomized block design with three replications T0 (Control), T1 (Hand weeding at 20 DAS, 40 DAS), T2 (Atrazine 1 kg/ha after 3 days of sowing), T3 (Metribuzin 1 kg/ha after 3 days of sowing), T4 (Alachlor 1.5 kg/ha after 3 days of sowing), T5 (Atrazine + hand weeding 1 kg/ha (after 3 days and 30 days after sowing), T6 (Metribuzin + hand weeding 1 kg/ha (after 3 days and 30 days after sowing), T7 (Alachlor + hand weeding 1.5 kg/ha (after 3 days and 30 days after sowing). The texture of the experimental field soil was sandy loam having pH-6.87, EC-0.32 mmhos/cm.
Result: The weed species recorded at the experimental site were mainly comprised with grasses, sedges and broadleaf weeds. The dominant weed species infested in the experimental field were: Cynodon dactylon (doob grass), Cyperus rotundus, Amaranthus viridis, Anagallis arvensis, Argemone mexicana, Chenopodium album, Parthenium hysterophorus and Trianthema prolacastrum. Significant reduction in the weed density was recorded in manual weeding. The highest plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, flag leaf length, chlorophyll content, leaf area index, grain yield and stover yield was recorded highest with hand weeding which was followed by T7 (Alachlor + hand weeding 1.5 kg/ha (after 3 days and 30 days after sowing).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
S. no. Treatment’s detail
T1 Hand weeding at 20 DAS, 40 DAS.
T2 Atrazine 1 kg/ha after 3 days of sowing.
T3 Metribuzin 1 kg/ha after 3 days of sowing.
T4 Alachlor 1.5 kg/ha after 3 days of sowing.
T5 Atrazine + hand weeding 1 kg/ha (after 3 days and 30 days after sowing).
T6 Metribuzin + hand weeding 1 kg/ha (after 3 days and 30 days after sowing).
T7 Alachlor + hand weeding 1.5 kg/ha (after 3 days and 30 days after sowing).
Weed flora and density
Density of different weeds in each plot was studied at 20 and 40 DAS. With the help of quadrate, measuring 1m2 was placed in specified treatment in net plot area. Weeds within the quadrate were counted and weed flora was studied and classified into three categories viz: grasses, broad leaves and sedges. The observation was computed to give weed density (number/m2) and subjected to square root of transformation i.e., Ö X + 0.5 prior to statistical analysis for test of significance.
Dry weight and wet weight analysis
Weed samples taken for weed density at 20 and 40 days after sowing were dried in hot air oven 60°C (± 5°C) remove moisture present on the surface of weeds. Dry weight was recorded on electronic balance and converted into g/m2.
Leaf area index
Periodic leaf area index at 20, 40 days after sowing were recorded. Leaves of single plant (cut for dry matter) were separated manually. An area measuring 10 cm long × 3 cm wide was cut out from upper, middle and lower portion of each leaf. Then LAI was calculated using the following formula:
It is the measurement of the total length of a plant from the base to the tip of the highest leaf or flag leaf. The maximum plant height was recorded in T1 where Hand weeding at 20 DAS, 40 DAS was used followed by T7 (Alachlor + hand weeding 1.5 kg/ha (after 3 days and 30 days after sowing). There was not any herbicide effect was recorded on the tip of the plants. As result there was no tip burning and height of the plants was regularly increased without any harness.
Leaf length and leaf width
It is recorded by measuring the length of the longest leaf or flag leaf of the plant from the base to the tip. The maximum leaf length was recorded in T2 (Atrazine 1 kg/ha after 3 days of sowing) because of atrazine is from triazine class. It is very much effective to prevent the pre-emergence broadleaf weeds. Due to the absence of weeds, there was proper space for the increasing the leaf length, but leaf width has been height recorded in T1 (Hand weeding at 20 DAS, 40 DAS) due to the hand weeding, soil aeration was proper in the soil time to time. So, plant was properly flourished with good photosynthesis rates.
It is the measurement around the circumference of the stem near the base of the plant. The maximum stem girth was recorded in T1 (Hand weeding at 20 DAS, 40 DAS), followed by T6 (Metribuzin + hand weeding 1 kg/ha (after 3 days and 30 days after sowing), because of there was proper eradication of weeds with two different weeding practices like hand weeding and chemical combination.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
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