Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, volume 39 issue 4 (december 2020) : 317-325

Different Methods of Food Preparation affect the Glycation Markers of Commonly Consumed Food Samples and Antioxidant Potential of Erythrocytes

Rashmi S. Tupe, Nilima S. Bangar, Prajakta A. Deshpande, Sanskruti A. Gavanepatil
1Symbiosis School of Biological Sciences (SSBS), Symbiosis International (Deemed University) (SIU), Lavale, Pune-411 046, Maharashtra, India. 
Cite article:- Tupe S. Rashmi, Bangar S. Nilima, Deshpande A. Prajakta, Gavanepatil A. Sanskruti (2020). Different Methods of Food Preparation affect the Glycation Markers of Commonly Consumed Food Samples and Antioxidant Potential of Erythrocytes. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 39(4): 317-325. doi: 10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1527.
Background: The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) interfere with the normal functioning of the protein, alter the enzyme activity leads to the development of diabetic complications. Food is an exogenous source of AGEs. The long term processes like storing and cooking lead to an elevated level of AGEs content in them. The elevated AGEs are responsible for the generation of oxidative stress and inflammation in a cellular environment. The present study aims to determine the glycation potency of commonly consumed foods samples and evaluate the effect of various food preparation methods on glycation content and its impact on healthy erythrocytes.
Methods: In this investigation from December 2017 to April 2018, Aqueous extracts of 29 food samples were tested for their glycation potency using glycation markers (fructosamine, free thiol groups, â-amyloid content, AOPP). Erythrocytes were treated with food extracts and their antioxidant indices (FRAP, catalase) were determined. 
Result: The result shows that protein-rich food had maximum levels of glycation as compared to carbohydrate and fat-rich food. The study indicated that cooking methods like (frying, roasting, baking and boiling) have a different effect on the glycation indices of the food. The food samples cooked by frying method had increased glycation content (p<0.001) and deleterious cellular effect.
  1. Aebi, H. (1984). Catalase in vivo. In: Methods in Enzymology, [Packer L (ed)] Elsevier, New York, NY. 105: 121-125. 
  2. Ames, J.M. (2008). Determination of N epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine in foods and related systems. Annals New York. Academy of Sciences. 1126:20-24.
  3. Anderstam, B., Ann-Christin, B.H., Valli, A., Stenvinkel, P. Lindholm, B. Suliman, M.E. (2008). Modification of the oxidative stress biomarker AOPP assay: application in uremic samples. Clinica Chimica Acta. 393: 114-118. 
  4. Aroni, A., Zyga, S., Tsironi, M., et al. (2019). Correlation of dietary advanced glycation end products with the hematological and biochemical markers of patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. Cureus. 11: e6360.
  5. Baker, J.R., Metcalf, P.A., Johnson, R.N., Newman, D., Rietz, P., (1985). Use of protein-based standards in automated colorimetric determinations of fructosamine in serum. Clinical Chemistry 31: 1550-1554.
  6. Benzie, I.F., Strain, J.J. (1999). Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods in Enzymology, Elsevier, New York, NY. 299: 15-27. 
  7. Blanc, F., Vissers, Y.M., Adel-Patient, K., Rigby, N.M., Mackie, A. R., Gunning, A.P., Wellner, N.K., et al., (2011). Boiling peanut Ara h 1 results in the formation of aggregates with reduced allergenicity. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 55(12): 1887-1894.
  8. Bouma, B., Kroon-Batenburg, L.M., Wu, Y.P., Brünjes, B., Posthuma, G., Kranenburg, O., de Groot, P.G., Voest, E.E. and Gebbink, M.F. (2003). Glycation induces the formation of amyloid cross-beta structure in albumin. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278: 41810-41819. 
  9. Brownlee, M. (1995). Advanced protein glycosylation in diabetes and aging. Annual Reviews of Medicine. 46: 223- 234.
  10. Cannizzaro, L., Rossoni, G., Savi, F., Altomare, A., Marinello, C., Saethang, T., Carini, M., Payne, D.M., Pisitkun, T., Aldini, G. (2017). Regulatory landscape of AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis and its modulation by PPARã activation in high fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Nutrition and Metabolism. 14: 1-13. 
  11. Chen, S.X., Song, T., Zhou, S.H., Liu, Y.H., Wu, S.J., Liu, L.Y. (2008). Protective effects of ACE inhibitors on vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by exogenous advanced oxidation protein products in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology. 584: 368-443. 
  12. Chuyen, N.V. (2006). Toxicity of the AGEs generated from the Maillard reaction: on the relationship of food-AGEs and biological-AGEs. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 50: 1140-1149. 
  13. Choudhury, S., Hazarika, M., Nath D.R., Borpuzari T., Hazarika R.A., Saikia, G.K., Doley P., Bhuyan, D. (2019). Effect of different drying methods and packaging conditions on physico chemical and sensory attributes of Phyto ingredients treated pork cubes during storage. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 38: 55-60. 
  14. Crescenzo, R., Bianco, F., Falcone, I., Coppola, P., Liverini, G., Iossa, S. (2013). Increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis and mitochondrial efficiency in a model of obesity induced by diets rich in fructose. European Journal of Nutrition. 52: 537-545. 
  15. Delgado Andrade, C. (2016). Carboxymethyl-lysine: thirty years of investigation in the field of AGE formation. Food and Function. 7: 46-57. 
  16. Ellman, G.L. (1959). Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 82: 70-77. 
  17. Este´vez, M., Luna, C. (2016). Dietary protein oxidation: a silent threat to human health. (Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition) 57: 3781-3793. 
  18. Goh, S.Y., Cooper, M.E. (2008). Clinical review: The role of advanced glycation end products in progression and complications of diabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 93: 1143-1152.
  19. Goldberg, T., Cai, W., Peppa, M., Dardaine, V., Baliga, B.S., Uribarri, J., Vlassara, H. (2004). Advanced glycoxidation end products in commonly consumed foods. Journal of American Diet Association. 105: 647. 
  20. Henle, T., Schwarzenbolz, U., Klostermeyer, H. (1997). Detection and quantification of pentosidine in foods. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. A. 204: 95-98. 
  21. Ishimoto, T., Lanaspa, M.A., Rivard, C.J., Roncal-Jimenez, C.A., Orlicky, D.J., Cicerchi, C., McMahan, R.H., Abdelmalek, M.F., Rosen, H.R., Jackman, M.R., (2013). High-fat and high-sucrose (western) diet induces steatohepatitis that is dependent on fructokinase. Hepatology. 58: 1632-1643. 
  22. Kamalasundari, S., Babu, R., Umamaheswari, T. (2019). Effect of domestic processing methods on anti-nutritional factors and its impact on the bioavailability proteins and starch in commonly consumed whole legumes. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research. 38: 67-72.
  23. Klunk, W.E., Jacob, R.F., Mason, R.P. (1999). Quantifying amyloid by congo red spectral shift assay. Methods in Enzymology, Elsevier, New York, NY. 309: 285-305. 
  24. Mastrocola, R., Collino, M., Rogazzo, M., Medana, C., Nigro, D., Boccuzzi, G., Aragno, M. (2013). Advanced glycation end products promote hepatosteatosis by interfering with SCAP-SREBP pathway in fructose-drinking mice. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 305: 3 98-407. 
  25. Minekus, M., Alminger, M., Alvito, P., balance, S., Bohn, T., Bourlieu, C., et al. (2014). A standardized static in vitro digestion method suitable for food – An international consensus. Food and Function. 5: 1113 - 1124. 
  26. Negrean, M., Stirban, A., Stratmann, B., Gawlowski, T., Horstmann, T., Götting, C., et al. (2007). Effects of low- and high-advanced glycation endproduct meals on macro- and microvascular endothelial function and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 85: 1236-1243. 
  27. Nowotnya, K., Schrötera, D., Schreinerb, M., Grunea, T. (2018). Dietary advanced glycation end products and their relevance for human health. Ageing Research Review. 47: 55-66.
  28. O’brien, J., Morrisssey, P.A. (1989). Nutritional and toxicological aspects of the maillard browning reaction in foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 28: 211-248. 
  29. Odetti, P., Rossi, S., Monacelli, F., Poggi, A., Cirnigliaro, M., Federici, M., Federici, A. (2005). Advanced glycation end products and bone loss during aging. Annals of New York Academy of Science. 1043: 710-717.
  30. Sante´-Lhoutellier, V., Astruc, T., Marinova, P., Greve, E., Gatellier, P. (2008). Effect of meat cooking on physicochemical state and in vitro digestibility of myofibrillar proteins. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 56: 1488-1494. 
  31. Saraswat, M., Reddy, P.Y., Muthenna, P., Reddy, G.B. (2009). Prevention of non-enzymic glycation of proteins by dietary agents: Prospects for alleviating diabetic complications. British Journal of Nutrition. 101: 1714-1735.
  32. Stanhope, K.L., Schwarz, J.M., Keim, N.L., Griffen, S.C., Bremer, A.A., Graham, J.L., Hatcher, B., Cox, C.L., Dyachenko, A., Zhang, W., et al., (2009). Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increase visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 119: 1322-1334. 
  33. Uribarri, J., Woodruff, S., Goodman, S., Cai, W., Chen, X., Pyzik, R., Yong, A. (2010). Advanced glycation end products in foods and a practical guide to their reduction in the diet. Journal of American Diet Association. 110: 911-916.
  34. Uribarri, J., Cai, W., Sandu, O., Peppa, M., Goldberg, T., Vlassara, H. (2005). Diet-derived advanced glycation end products are major contributors to the body’s AGE pool and induce inflammation in healthy subjects. Annals of New York Academy of Science. 1043: 461-466.
  35. Uribarri, J., del Castillo, MD., de la Maza, MP. et al. (2015). Dietary advanced glycation end products and their role in health and disease. Advance in Nutrition. 6: 461-473. 

Editorial Board

View all (0)