Chief EditorArvind kumar
Print ISSN 0253-150X
Online ISSN 0976-0547
NAAS Rating 4.75
Full Research Article
Assessment of Elements in Curcuma caesia Rhizome through Various Instrumentation Techniques
- Email email@example.com
First Online 28-03-2023|
Methods: Curcuma caesia rhizomes were collected from Thoubal District, Manipur, North-East India during the month of November-December, 2017. Rhizomes powder was investigated for the determination of various elements by instrumental techniques like, Flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS), Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Carbon - Hydrogen - Nitrogen - Sulphur (CHNS).
Result: After comparison of the various results given by FAAS, ICP-MS, SEM, EDX and CHNS Techniques, 17 elements consisting of both major and minor elements viz. C (7.705 wt.%), H (1.22wt.%), N (4.41 wt.%), O (36.97 at. %), Na (5.5 µg/mL), K (15.8 µg/mL), Mg (1.3 µg/mL), Fe (0.53 µg/mL), Ca (0.46 µg/mL), Co (<2 ng/mL), V (<2 ng/mL), Cr (6 ng/mL), Ni (30 ng/mL), As (<5 ng/mL), Mn (82 ng/mL), Cu (42 ng/mL) and Pb (10 ng/mL) have been determined in Curcuma caesia rhizome (µg/mL means micro gram per millilitre while ng/mL means nano gram per millilitre). A comprehensive elemental analysis data Curcuma caesia rhizome of such kind is not yet reposted earlier. The study will be very helpful in further study of the medicinal values of the rhizome.
Plants belonging to zingiberaceae have huge medicinal properties besides it is used in food, perfume and in dyes (Riao et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2007; Nelson et al., 2017; Kumar et al., 2013 ). The plants consist of about 52 genera and more than 1600 species (Pitopang et al., 2018). They are grown in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A few commercially important plant species in Zingiberaceae are ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), kasturi turmeric (Curcuma aromatica Salisb.), mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.), Aframomum spp., Kaempferia spp., etc. One of the interesting characteristics of ziniberaceae is that they have the varied coloured rhizomes viz. blue, pale yellow, deep yellow, greenish blue, pink, colourless and combination of these and accordingly, their significances to the mankind are also different.
Medicinally, the rhizomes of the plant have been used for its antifungal activity, smooth muscle relaxant, anti-asthmatic activity, antioxidant activity, analgesic activity, loco motor depressant, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, CNS depressant activity, anti-ulcer activity and many other activities (Arya et al., 2017). The plant is widely cultivated in many countries: Ceylon, Belgium, Indonesia and France. Also, the plant is found in many parts of India: North- East states, Papi hills of East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh and North hill forest of Sikkim (Sasikumar, 2005). The plant is native to North-East and Central India (Ravindran et al., 2007).
The studies of medicinal properties of the plant based on its organic component, viz. alkaloids, glycosides, essential oils, vitamins, other active components have been found extensive. But, assessment of medicinal property based on nutrient content is scanty. Various elements play vital roles in combating different human diseases (Prasad, 1993). Elements in small doses present in medicinal plants which have both therapeutics and prophylactic properties are known as trace elements (Hutchinson et al., 1963). They perform various vital metabolic reactions in the plants and animals (Suzanne, 2007). They not only play significant part in formulation of herbal drug but also in establishing structure and chelating therapy (Taylor, 1975; Burton, 1976). Excess or deficiency of the elements such as Fe, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Mg, Mn, Mo, Cr, V, Li, Se, F and I may also disturb normal biochemical functions of the body (Iyengar, 1989; Burton, 1976; Binita, 2018; Rupesh, 2018; Natalia et al., 2017; Silvy, 2019). Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate nutrients and trace elements present in the Curcuma caesia rhizome as a comprehensive and quantitative manner so that the rhizome can be used for various herbal formulations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The Curcuma caesia plant was identified by comparing with the voucher specimen (IBSD/-19), deposited in Institute of Bio-resources and Sustainable Development, Takyelpat, Imphal. The rhizomes of the plant were collected from Thoubal District, Manipur, North-East India during the month of November-December 2017 (Fig 1).
Fig 1: (a) Curcuma caesia Young plant, May 2017 (b) Curcuma caesia leaves with characteristic purple midrib, (c) Wither flower, June 2017, (d) A complete Plant’s parts of Curcuma caesia, (e) Collection of rhizomes, (f) T.S. view of Rhizome, (g) Shed air dry of rhizomes, (h) Powder rhizome and (i) Rhizome solution.
The collected rhizomes were washed thoroughly with running tape water, followed by washing with double distilled water. The rhizomes were then sliced into small pieces and shade air dried at room temperature. The dried rhizomes were ground into powder using an electrical grinder and then stored for further use.
Sample preparation for analysis
Sample preparation and elemental analysis have been carried out in the analytical division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India in the year, 2018-19.
1 gm. of the rhizome powder sample was added in 10 mL of ultra-pure nitric acid in a volumetric flask and warmed to dissolve it. Then, the final volume of the solution was made as 100 mL by adding deionized water. From this solution, FAAS and ICP-MS studies had been performed. SEM-EDAX study was performed on pellets of 1 cm diameter prepared from the rhizome powder under hydraulic pressure. And, about 200 mg each of dried rhizome powder was used to perform CHNS and XRD studies.
Flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) of GBC 906AA AAS unit with deuterium-arc background correction was used to detect the following elements Fe, Mg, Na, K, Ca down to ppm (mg/ml). The air-acetylene flame and nanopure water (18.3 Mega ohm) as diluent were used in this estimation.
ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) of model VG PQ Ex Cell, VG Elemental, UK, was used for determination of elements viz. Cu, Pb, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, As and V down to ppb (ng/ml),
SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images were recorded using model TESCAN VEGA3 and EDX (energy dispersive x-ray) analysis of elements present in the sample was also analysed by the same instrument.
Thermo-Fischer Flash EA 1112 Series CHNS Analyzer was used for quantitative determination of the following elements C, N, H and S.
XRD (X-ray diffraction) data of the dried powder sample was recorded using PAN analytical powder X-ray diffractometer of Ni-Filtered Cu-Kα (1.5405 Å) at 40 kV and 30 mA.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In the scanning electron microscope (SEM), a high energy electron beam with a few keV targets surface of pellet of rhizome powder. After that, electrons interact with surface of pellet. In this way, backscattered electrons, secondary electrons, Auger electrons, as well as characteristic x-rays of elements present in surface of pellet are produced (Kumari et al., 2012). SEM image and EDX (Energy dispersive X-ray analysis) spectrum of rhizome are shown in Fig 2(a, b). EDX data are given in Table 1. This study suggests that the contents of C and O are high and the amount of C is about 1.7 times that of O. Elements such as Si, Cl, Zr, Mo are also detected but are less than 1 at.% and so, they are not counted to be present in the sample which is the limitation of this instrument. The technique cannot provide the exact contents of light elements (Z<10) because the intensity of X-ray characteristics lines is low. CHNS analysis data indicates the presence of the elements: C, H and N in the sample (Table 1). Here, the weight percentages of the elements were expressed with respect to the mass of sample taken. The present study revealed that the three elements viz. C, H and N accounts 47.17 wt. % in the sample. The XRD pattern of the dried rhizome is shown in (Fig 2c.) It shows a broad peak with maximum at 2q = 23o indicating the amorphous nature.
In the present study, SEM-EDX technique determines the presence of the elements (in atomic %) C (62.74), O (36.97), Na (0.07), Si (0.09), Mg (0.04), K (0.02), Cl (0.01), Zr (0.02), Mo (0.01), As (0.03). In another study, the technique determined the presence of elements (in atomic %) C (63.7), O (24.2), Mg (0.6), K (2.8), Zr (5.2), Cl (0.1) and Mo (3.4) (Tamrakar et al., 2019) in the same plant species. It is inferred that the same plant species possesses different elemental contents depending on places where plants are collected. It indicates a medicinal plant could have different therapeutic values. The varied elemental content of the plant sample could be due to different locations in the world (latitude and longitude), climate, season, cultivation practices, fertilizer application, stress during growth or maturity, harvesting time, stage of maturity, storage, extraction and analysis methods (Dosoky, 2015; Sanghamitra et al., 2015; Srinivasan et al., 2016; Burt, 2004). Additionally, the present study indicates the presence of toxic elements such as Pb (10 ng/ml), As (<5 ng/ml); however, their presence is negligible (Bowen, 1979) which may not cause any adverse side effect, apart from its medicinal values. The present study covers a wider range of elemental analysis and determines a greater number of health beneficial elements in the sample than the reported ones. The study concludes the presence of C, O, H and N as major elements and Na, Mg, K, Fe, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Pb as minor elements (Fig 3) in the Curcuma caesia rhizome.
In this study, different instrumental techniques viz. FAAS, ICP-MS, SEM-EDX and CHNS have been used to investigate the presence of various nutritional and trace elements in the sample as sensitivities of these techniques are different. FAAS techniques measures the presence of elements in µg/mL (ppm) level, ICPS technique measures down up to ppb label (part per billion) while SEM-EDX measures in terms of atomic per cent. It cannot measure the presence of elements in the sample below 1 atomic per cent.
Conflict of interest
- Arya, V., Rinu, K.A., Dhanish, J. (2017). Medicinal properties of black turmeric: A review. 4(3). Innoriginal International Journal of Sciences. May-June 2017 | 1-4.
- Binita, M., Lal, B.S. (2018). Trace elements and antioxidant activity of six wild edible plants that are widely consumed by ethnic tribes of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Indian J. Agric. Res. 52(1) : 85-88.
- Bowen, H.J.M. (1979). Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. Academic Press. 36-237.
- Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: Their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods-A review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 94: 223-253.
- Burton, B.T. (1976). Human Nutrition, 3'” ed., H.J. Heince Company, USA. 129.
- Chen, J.C., Huang, L.J., Wu, S.L., Kuo, S., Ho, T.Y., Hsiang, C.Y. (2007). Ginger and its bioactive component inhibit enter toxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea in mice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 8390-8397.
- Dosoky, N.S. (2015). Isolation and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Conradina canescens Gray. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL, USA.
- Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa. II. Millbank, London crown agents for oversea Government and Administration. 4: 221.
- Iyengar, G.V. (1989). Elemental Analysis of Biological Sys-tems- biomedical, Environmental. In: Compositional and Methodological Aspects of Trace Elements. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
- Kataky, A., Handique, P.J. (2010). A brief overview on Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f) Nees. high valued medicinal plant: Boon over synthetic drugs. Asian Journal of Science and Technology. 6: 113-118.
- Kumar, K.M.P., Asish, G.R., Sabul, M., Balachandran, I. (2013). Significance of gingers (Zingiberaceae) in Indian system of medicine-Ayurveda: An overview. Ancient Science of Life. 32: 253-261.
- Kumari, K., Sridevi, S.P., Chandana, L.V., Manasa, M. (2012). Medicinal Properties of phytoconstituents. RJPBCS. 3(4): 214-222.
- Mazumdar ,M.E.H., Rahman, S. (2008). Pharmacological evaluation of Bangladeshi medicinal plants for antioxidant activity. Pharmaceutical Biology. 46: 704-709.
- Natalia, P., Joanna, P., Witold, S.P., Anna F. andrzej D., Kamil S. (2017). Concentrations of macroelements and trace elements in milk of Jersey cows. Indian J. Anim. Res. 51(1): 89-92.
- Nelson, K.M., Dahlin, J.L., Bisson, J., Graham, J., Pauli, W. (2017). The essential medicinal chemistry of curcumin. J. Med. Chem. 60: 1620-1637.
- Pitopang, R., Damry, R., Hamzah, B., Zubair, M.S., Amar, A.L., Fathurahman, F., Basri, Z., Poulsen, A.D. (2018). Diversity of Zingiberaceae and traditional uses by three indigenous groups at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi. Indonesia, International Seminar on Science and Technology. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1242/1/012039.
- Prasad, A.S. (1993). Essential and Toxic Elements in Human Health and Disease: An Update.Wiley-Liss, https://www. researchgate.net/publication/273616737.
- Ravindran, P.N., Nirmal, B.K., Sivaraman, K. (2007). Turmeric: The Genus Curcuma. CRC Press.11.
- Riao, J.C.D., Gutiearrez, A. (2006). Chemical composition of abaca (Musa textilis) leaf fibers used for manufacturing of high quality paper pulps. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54: 4600-4610.
- Rupesh, P., Datir, S., Adil, A., Sahar, S. (2018). Pearl Millet: Boon in mineral deficiency: A review. Agricultural Reviews. 39(4): 327-332.
- Sanghamitra, N., Sujata, M., Nagar, K. (2015). Differential effect of soil and environment on metabolic expression of turmeric (Curcuma longa cv. Roma). Indian J. Exp. Biol. 53: 406-411.
- Sasikumar, B. (2005). Genetic resource of Curcuma: Diversity, characterization and utilization. Plant Genet Resource. 3: 230-251.
- Silvy, M., Teenamol, P.T. (2019).Comparative analysis of heavy metal contamination in some common tubers and vegetables of Kerala. Indian J. Agric. Res. 53(4): 417-422.
- Srinivasan, V., Thankamani, C.K., Dinesh, R., Kandiannan, K., Zachariah, T.J., Leela, N.K., Hamza, S., Shajina, O., Ansha, O. (2016). Nutrient management systems in turmeric: Effects on soil quality, rhizome yield and quality. Ind. Crops Prod. 85: 241-250.
- Suzanne, S. (2007). In: Elements in Living Organisms, The Rosen Publishing Group, New York. 6-7. ISBN: 978-1-4042- 3424-6.
- Tamrakar, V., Arora, D., Arora, C. (2019). Phytochemical Screening, proximate and elemental analysis of plant species Curcuma caesia, Curcuma longa and Chenopodium album. Res. J. Chem. Environ. 23(9): 113.
- Taylor, (1975). Trace elements medicine and chelation therapy, Royal. Soc. Chem. 135.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.