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Diversity, Abundance and Composition of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Jhunjhunu District of Rajasthan, India
First Online 30-08-2022|
Methods: Sampling was carried out in Jhunjhunu district from January 2021 to December 2021. Four sampling sites viz., Site-A (agriculture land), Site-B (Plains are relatively flat land which is dominated by grasses, herbs and shrubs), Site-C (rocky area) and Site-D (blanks of water bodies) were selected based on different habitats situation. Carabid beetles were collected using pitfall trap, hand picking and light trap and identified by valid taxonomic keys.
Result: Diversity indices authenticated a good diversity and abundance of ground beetles in the district. A total of 956 individuals of carabid beetles, representing 28 species and 19 genera belonging to 11 subfamilies viz. Harpalinae (7 species), Trechinae (7 species), Brachininae (3 species), Scaritinae (3 species), Lebiinae (2 species), Paussinae (1 species), Anthiinae (1 species), Carabinae (1 species), Pterostichinae (1 species), Platyninae (1 species), Cicindelinae (1 species) under Carabidae family were collected and identified from various habitats of study area. On the basis of total number of individuals Dromius quadrimaculatus is the most dominant species and constituted 18.62% of total beetles followed by Chlaenius bimaculatus (8.05%), Tetragonoderus intermedius (7.64%) Lophyra differens (6.80%) and Bembidion ambiguum (5.02%). The highest diversity was observed at Site-B (H=2.72, J=0.83, M=4.43) followed by Site-A (H=2.72, J=0.83, M=4.08), Site-C (H=2.52, J=0.90, M=3.48) and Site-D (H=2.25, J=0.87, M=2.25).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Carabid beetles were collected using pitfall trap, hand picking and light trap. Pitfall trap (with 12 cm diameter and 15 cm depth) were placed in ground up to the rim, which is the most suitable method for capturing ground beetles. After sampling, beetles were brought to laboratory, Department of Zoology, SRRM Govt. College, Jhunjhunu. After pinning, stretching and drying, beetles were preserved in insect boxes with Paradichlorobenzene. Collected carabid beetles were identified to the species level with the help of Stereo Zoom Binocular Microscope (Magnus MSZ-Bi) according to taxonomic keys by Andrew (1929, 1935); Habu (1967, 1973, 1978); Kwon and Lee (1984) and photographed for future study.
Relative species abundance of Carabidae family was computed by following formula.
Diversity of carabid beetles were analysed using different diversity indices: Shannon-Weiner diversity index, Margalef’s index for species richness and Pielou’s index for species evenness.
Shannon-Weiner diversity index
Beetle diversity was computed by the Shannon-Wiener Diversity index.
Hx = - ∑Si In Si
Si = L/M
L= Individual number of one species.
M= Total number of individuals observed.
In= Log to base n.
Margalef’s index for richness
Margalef’s index was used for calculating species richness (Margalef, 1958).
L= Total number of observed species.
M= Total number of individuals observed.
In= Natural log.
Pielou’s index for evenness
Pielou’s Index was used for computing species evenness (Pielou, 1975).
Hx= Shannon-Wiener diversity index.
L= Total number of species observed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In terms of total number of individuals Harpalinae was the most dominant subfamily with 25.83% of the total collected beetles. Trechinae was the second most dominant subfamily which constituted 24.58% of the total recorded beetles. Lebiinae, Cicindelinae, Pterostichinae, Brachininae, Scaritinae, Platinae, Anthiinae, Carabinae and Paussinae subfamilies were subsequently constituted 21.75%, 6.80%, 4.71%, 4.60%, 3.87%, 2.71%, 2.51%, 2.30%, 0.31% of the total collected beetles (Fig 2). These results were similar of findings of Kustasi and Marko, 2007; Igondova and Majzlan, 2015; Nagahata et al., 2002, Kadar and Lovei, 1992. About 4.05% abundance of Carabidae family was reported from agri-biodiversity park of Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Telangana (Sahoo et al., 2020). Kutasi et al., (2004) reported the species richness and composition of carabids in Hungary.
Diversity indices of carabid beetles in all four sites are shown in Table 2. The Shannon-Wiener index of carabidae family is same in both Site-A (agriculture land) and Site-B (Plains) recorded highest diversity value as 2.72 followed by Site-C (Rocky area) as 2.52 and Site-D (banks of water bodies) as 2.25. Species Richness Index is recorded high in Site-B as 4.43 followed by Site-A as 4.08, Site-C as 3.48 and low in Site-D as 2.25. However, the evenness index (Jx) was greatest in Site-C as 0.90, moderate in Site-D as 0.87 and least in both Site-A and Site-B as 0.83 (Table 2). The lowest evenness index at both the Site A and B were probably due to greatest abundance of the major species (125 individuals of Dromius quadrimaculatus, 49 individuals of Chaenius bimaculatus and 47 individuals of Lophyra differens). Altogether, when the diversity indices were compared for selected four sites (Table 2), it was found that both Sites A (agriculture land) and Site B (Plains are dominated by grasses, herbs and shrubs) have the highest and similar species diversity and species richness. This implies that the availability of different herbs, shrubs, plants and crop cultivars were providing suitable microhabitats for flourished to the diversity and abundance of carabid species. In the previous studies by Gaston, 1991 and Cheng et al., 2007 revealed that plants and insects interrelate by way of mutualism and phytophagy and the structural intricacy of habitat and diversity of vegetation forms showed correlation with insect species diversity (Alarape et al., 2015). Beetles are found where there is a favourable environment for their survival (Samways, 2007; Adeduntan and Olusola, 2013). Site-C (rocky areas) has moderate species diversity and species richness which is due to low availability of vegetation forms, increased soil erosion, sedimentation, water run-off and low moisture content in rocky area (Lacey et al., 1989). Site-D (banks of water bodies) also has low species diversity and species richness because of low forging sites and little availability of microhabitats for carabid beetles. The pattern of species diversity and composition indicated habitats related with assemblage structure of vicinity area of water bodies (Kubo et al., 2013).
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