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Impact of Cocoa Shell and Jack Fruit Peel Waste Biocompost Influence on the Growth and Yield Attributes of Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (L.)
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First Online 20-01-2022|
Methods: The experiments were conducted in the Department of Botany, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, during 2019.The experiments consists of various treatments of biocompost. Different growth stages of the plant sample were analysed for root length, shoot length, number of leaves, number of nodules, number of flowers, plant fresh weight and dry weight on 25, 50 and 75 DAS. The yield parameters of cowpea such as number of pods per plant, length of pod, number of seeds per pod, weight of seeds per pods, pod fresh and dry weight were analysed on 90 DAS.
Result: The experimental result showed that T8 (Raw Jack fruit peel+10 g Pleurotus eous+10 g Pleurotus florida+Eudrilus eugeniae 5 t/ha-1) and T4 (Raw Cocoa shell+10 g Pleurotus eous+10 g Pleurotus florida+Eudrilus eugeniae 5 t/ha-1) treatment significantly increased the vegetative growth in root length, shoot length, number of leaves/plant, number of nodules, fresh weight and dry weight on 25 to 75 DAS and number of flowers on 45 DAS. Maximum increase in the yield parameters was observed in number of pods/plant, length of pod, number of seeds/pod, weight of seed/pod, fresh weight and dry weight of pod in Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis L. as compared to other treatments and control. The main objective of the study was to develop high yielding and healthy vegetable crops with the help of biocomposted agroindustrial waste without damaging the environment.
Chemical fertilizers are directly enhancing crop yield because plants directly or indirectly assimilate the nutrients provided by these inorganic fertilizers. The production and use of these fertilizers impart various negative effects on the agricultural ecosystem such as loss of crop genetic diversity, degradation of the soil, reduction in soil microbial diversity, contamination of ground-water resources and pollution of the entire atmosphere. Generally, land degradation directly affects the type of plant grown in the area (Folberth et al., 2014). Fertilizer consumption increased exponentially throughout the world, causes serious environmental problems. Fertilization may affect the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plant system. Plants absorb the fertilizers through the soil, they can enter the food chain (Savci 2012; Kumar et al., 2019).
Application of biocomposted cocoa shell and jackfruit peel improves the availability of macro and micronutrients. This investigation will provide not only an alternate solution for the disposal of agroindustrial waste which also minimizes the application of inorganic fertilizers to vegetable crops and encourage small-scale producers and organic farming.
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is mostly grown as an intercrop in coconut and areca nut gardens in India. Commercial cultivation of cocoa started in India in 1970. At present, cocoa is grown in four major states Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu (Praveena et al., 2018). Cocoa shells are one of the by-products of cocoa beans obtained in the chocolate industry. These by-products are usually considered as waste and left to rot on the cocoa plantation (Christos et al., 2019). Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is the popular fruit in India. It belongs to the family Moraceae, bear fruits which consist of fleshy edible bulb. Its peel is not edible, no commercial use and adds up to the world’s agricultural waste (Delos, 2018). Agroindustrial waste of cocoa shells and jackfruit peel is mostly considered as underutilized waste substances which are usually dumped on open roadsides. These residues create a potential threat to the environment and loss of nutrients in soil could be avoided by recycling the agrowaste through biocomposting. Legumes are one of the important segments of Indian agriculture after cereals and oilseeds. Pulses are not only improving soil health by enriching nitrogen status but also enhance the sustainability of the cropping system. It can fix atmospheric nitrogen with the help of nodules. The nodules are the house of the microscopic rhizobium that converts atmospheric nitrogen to nitrate and ammonia that can be used by plants (Oldroyd et al., 2011; Yuvaraj et al., 2020; Singh and Chahal, 2020).
The study was to evaluate the influence of biocomposted cocoa shell and jack fruit peel on the vegetative growth and yield performance of Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis L. (cowpea). It belongs to the family leguminosae and one of the most popular cosmopolitan vegetable crops grown in Kerala. The traditional vernaculars viz. ‘Achingapayar’, ‘Kurutholapayar’, ‘Vallipayar’, ‘Pathinettumaniyan’, ‘Asparagus bean’, ‘Chinese long bean’, etc., used to refer to yard-long bean indicate that Kerala is the land of this crop. It is a rich and inexpensive source of vegetable protein. It enriches soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Because of its quick growth habit it has become an essential component of sustainable agriculture in marginal lands of the tropics (Litty et al., 2015).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collection of agroindustrial wastes
The cocoa shell and jack fruit peel waste were collected in large amounts from Calicut and the Wayanad district of Kerala. The collected wastes were smashed into small pieces. It was sun-dried and stored in gunny bags.
Preparation of biocompost
The composting processes consist of 4 square feet wide and 1-metre depth of eight pits. Pleurotus eous and Pleurotus florida spawns are used for the easy decomposition of raw cocoa shell and jack fruit peel waste. After 30 days the vermicomposting process was also adopted.
Preparation of vermicomposting trays
After 30 days pre-digested cocoa shells and Jack fruit peels were treated with fifteen exotic earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). Water was sprayed regularly to maintain the moisture content of each tray. These vermicomposting trays were kept undisturbed for 60 days. After the 90th day, biocomposted samples were taken and sieved.
Pot culture experiments and application of treatments
Twenty-seven pots were filled with 5 kg of red sandy loam soil. Eight biocompost treatments were applied to the respective pots and mixed thoroughly. Control was maintained. Seeds of Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis L. (Var. NS-620). were collected from private seed centre Calicut. Viable cowpea seeds were selected and five seeds were sown in each pot with three replications. After germination three healthy plants were maintained in each pot.
On the 25, 50 and 75 DAS Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis L. plants were uprooted from the pot and the following vegetative characters were noted such as root length (cm), shoot length (cm), number of leaves, number of nodules, number of flowers/plant, plant fresh weight (gm) and plant dry weight (gm).
On the 90th day, the plants were uprooted from the respective pots and the following yield parameters were observed. Number of pods/plant, length of pod (cm), number of seeds/pod, weight of seeds/pods, pod fresh weight (gm) and pod dry weight (gm).
The experimental data obtained on 25 DAS, 50 DAS, 75 DAS for vegetative growth and on 90 DAS for yield parameters were subjected to sigma stat 3.1 (one-way and two-way ANOVA).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Root and shoot length
A gradual increase in root length was observed in all the treatments as shown in Table 1. The maximum root length was observed in T8- Raw jack fruit peel+10 g Pleurotus eous+ 10 g Pleurotus florida + Eudrilus eugeniae 5 t/ha-1 (21.35 cm, 23.17 cm, 27.66 cm) closely followed by T4- Raw cocoa shell+10 g Pleurotus eous+10 g Pleurotus florida+Eudrilus eugeniae 5 t/ha-1 (19.23 cm, 20.12 cm and 22.57 cm) as compared to the control (9.0 cm, 10.6 cm and 12.4 cm) on 25, 50 and 75 DAS respectively. The treatment T8 showed a remarkable increase in shoot length (92.18 cm, 122.17 and 135.58 cm) on all the three days examined, followed by T4 (86.22 cm, 120.66 cm and 130.52 cm) when compared to control (23.17 cm, 71.13 cm and 78.24 cm).
Sakthivigneswari and Vijayalakshmi, (2016) reported that influence of raw coir pith predigested by using Pleurotus sajor-caju and Eudrilus eugeniae and raw corncob predigested by using Pleurotus sajor-caju and Eudrilus eugeniae has increased the root and shoot length of black nightshade. The maximum shoot length (86.6) and root length (41) was observed in treatments S4 which is followed by other treatment when compared to control observed by Dey et al. (2019).
Number of leaves
An appreciable increase in number of leaves/plant was recorded in all the treatments (T1 to T8) from 25 to 75 DAS. The highest number of leaves were shown in T8 (19.65, 29.50 and 37.54) treatment followed by treatment T4 (18.00, 27.57 and 35.26). Minimum numbers of leaves were noted in control (8.00, 12.24 and 18.00) on all the three days as prsented in Table 1. Al-Sabbagh et al. (2020) recorded that application of vermicompost and NPK fertilizer was significant (60.99) on the number of leaves of Solanum lycopersicum among different treatments. The number of leaves recorded was far higher in Ecodrum compost treatment (13.66) amended pot media as against other treatments and control (8.66) in chinese kale by Kashem et al. (2015). Similar result was reported by effect of compost from different animal manures on maize (Coulibaly et al., 2019).
Number of nodules
Number of nodules showed a remarkable increase up to 50 DAS compared to other days after that it declined. Maximum number of nodules were recorded in T8 Raw jackfruit peel + 10 g Pleurotus eous+10 g Pleurotus florida+Eudrilus eugeniae 5 t/ha-1 (27.46, 33.00 and 25.00) treatment followed by T4- Raw cocoa shell + 10 g Pleurotus eous + 10 g Pleurotus florida + Eudrilus eugeniae 5 t/ha-1 (24.13, 30.00 and 21.00) as compared to the control (9.00, 15.00 and 8.35) on 25, 50 and 75 DAS. The results were depicted in Table 1.
Espiritu (2011) reported that application of composted coir pith inoculated with 0.5% Azotobacter+0.5% Trichoderma harzianum w/v significantly enhanced the number of nodules in mung bean. Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + RDF-100% (T9) recorded maximum nodules per plant (4.17) in Vigna unquiculata (L.) walp as compared to other treatment combinations by Verma et al. (2018).
Number of flowers
The combined application of Raw jackfruit peel+10 g Pleurotus eous+10 g Pleurotus florida+Eudrilus eugeniae (T8) and Raw cocoa shell + 10 g Pleurotus eous + 10 g Pleurotus florida + Eudrilus eugeniae (T4) biocompost showed a significant result in increasing the number of flowers (21.00 and 19.67) per plant of vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (L.) when compared to the control (8.00) on 45 DAS as shown in Table 2. Nalluri et al. (2018) reported that application of groundnut shell compost promoted the highest number of flowers in brinjal plant in T2 treatment. Similar results were found in tomato plant (Chaudhary and Mishra, 2019).
Fresh weight and dry weight of plant
A remarkable increase in the fresh weight content was registered in the treatment T8 (5.491 gm, 9.811 gm and 32.516 gm) closely followed by T4 (5.136 gm, 7.371 gm and 28.460 gm) on 25, 50 and 75 days after sowing. The lowest plant fresh weight content was observed in control (2.288 g, 3.276 g and 8.165 g). The maximum plant dry weight content was recorded in T8 (0.855 gm, 1.489 gm and 3.020 gm), followed by T4 (0.796 gm, 1.130 gm and 2.187 gm) on 25, 50 and 75 DAS. The minimum plant dry weight content was noted in control (0.293 gm, 0.638 gm and 0.977 gm) on selected three days (Table 2). The application of vermicomposted weed plants waste using Eudrilus eugeniae was increase in fresh weight content (6.6 g) and dry weight content (2.2 g) of brinjal plant by Sivakumar and Karthikeyan, (2016). Ameeta et al. (2019) reported that integrated treatment of organic and inorganic fertilizer (Spinach+Mustard oil cake (MOC) @ 5 t/ha+Sesame oil cake (SOC) @ 5 t/ha+NPK@30 kg/ha) significantly increases the fresh and dry weight of Spinacia oleracea L.
Yield parameters of cowpea (90 DAS)
The yield parameters of Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (L.) in Table 3 revealed the overall increased growth in treatment T8 (Raw jackfruit peel+10 g Pleurotus eous+10 g Pleurotus florida+Eudrilus eugeniae 5 t/ha-1) followed by T4 (Raw cocoa shell+10 g Pleurotus eous+10 g Pleurotus florida + Eudrilus eugeniae 5 t/ha-1) as compared to control. A highest number of pods/plant was recorded in T8 (28.67) followed by T4 (26.00) on 90 DAS as compared to the control (9.00). Similarly, the length of the pod was increased in T8 (48.60 cm) and T4 (40.70 cm) treatments increased significantly over the control (20.60 cm). The maximum number of seeds/pod was seen in T8 (24.00) followed by T4 (22.00) over the control (11.00). A substantial increase in the weight of seeds/pod was examined in T8 (1.919 gm) and T4 (1.757 gm) as compared to the control (0.823 gm).
Among the treatments a significant increase in the pod fresh weight was observed in T8 (6.796 gm) and T4 (5.440 gm) when compared to the control (1.185 gm) and the pod dry weight was highest in T8 (2.707 gm) followed by T4 (2.652 gm) treatment over the control (0.853 gm) respectively. The combined use of vermicompost and 25% municipal soild waste compost significantly enhanced the number of fruits at the harvest period over control in Lycopersicum esculentum recorded by Birajdar et al. (2018). Similar results were reported by Pinky and Vijayalakshmi (2020) in black gram. Deepa et al. (2016) reported that RDF (fertilizer 20-40-0 NPK kg ha-1) was significantly higher the number of green pods per plant (79.60) and number of seeds per pod (13.45) in Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Application of jeevamrutha and panchagavya resulted in better growth attributes in cowpea by Reshma et al. (2019). Similar results were reported Shinde and Hunje, (2019) in Kabuli chickpea and brinjal plant by Palia et al. (2021). These results are closely confined with the findings of Nasar et al. (2019); Mithra et al. (2019); Mehran et al. (2020); Kumarimanimuthu and Kalaimath, (2020).
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