Loading...

Investigations on Gonadosomatic Index and Gonad Histology of Barred Spiny eel Macrognathus pancalus Hamilton, 1822 from Upper Assam, India

DOI: 10.18805/ag.D-5271    | Article Id: D-5271 | Page : 210-216
Citation :- Investigations on Gonadosomatic Index and Gonad Histology of Barred Spiny eel Macrognathus pancalus Hamilton, 1822 from Upper Assam, India.Agricultural Science Digest.2022.(42):210-216
Rimle Borah, Jyotirmoy Sonowal, Akash Kachari, Nipen Nayak, Shyama Prasad Biswas jyotirmoyjuli1@gmail.com
Address : Department of Zoology, Dakha Devi Rasiwasia College, Chabua-786 184,  Assam, India.
Submitted Date : 29-10-2020
Accepted Date : 13-04-2021

Abstract

Background: Macrognathus pancalus or barred spiny eel is a highly valued ornamental and food fish found in the Indian subcontinent. Due to the burgeoning population and their associated impacts, the population of the species is in rapid decline that necessitates time-bound intervention to conserve the species. The current investigation was undertaken to study the gonadosomatic index and gonad histology of Macrognathus pancalus collected from upper Assam, India.
Methods: 500 samples of Macrognathus pancalus were collected from different water bodies such as wetlands, ponds, paddy fields, etc. from upper Assam, India during 2018-2019. Monthly samplings were carried out to evaluate the gonadosomatic index. The gonads were dissected out, measured and subsequently preserved for histological studies. Histological sections of preserved samples were prepared by employing accepted methodologies. The sections were then photographed using Leica DM 750 and gonadal staging was ascertained. 
Result: Gonadosomatic index studies revealed that it peaked in August in both males (3.45±0.18) and females (8.85±0.35), thereby indicating its spawning season. Minimum GSI values were observed during January in males (0.39±0.04) and in December in females (1.04±0.15) indicating the culmination of the breeding period and the advent of the preparatory phase. Macroscopic and microscopic examination unearthed five different phases of gonadal maturation. Gonadal staging through microscopic and macroscopic technique showed synchronicity with GSI values. 

Keywords

Gonadosomatic index Gonadal staging Macrognathus pancalus Spawning season

References

  1. Abujam, S.K.S. and Biswas, S.P. (2011). Studies on the reproductive biology of spiny eel, Macrognathus aral from upper Assam. Journal of Environmental Biology. 32: 635-639.
  2. Abujam, S.K. and Biswas, S.P. (2020). Reproductive biology of the spiny eel Macrognathus pancalus Hamilton, 1822 from upper Assam, India. Indian Journal of Fisheries. 67(1): 36-46. 
  3. Assem, S.S. (2003). Reproductive biology, spermatogenesis, and ultra-structure of the testes of the Sparid fish, Pagellus e rythrinus. Journal of Egyptian German Society of Zoology. 42(C): 231-251.
  4. Barros, S. and Regidor, H. (2002). Reproduction in Odontesthes bonariensis (Atherinidae: Pisces) from north western Argentina. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 18: 27-28. 
  5. Blazer, V.S. (2002). Histopathological assessment of gonadal tissue in wild fishes. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 26(1): 85-101.
  6. Borah, R., Sonowal, J., Nayak, N., Kachari, A. and Biswas, S.P. (2020). Induced breeding, embryonic and larval development of Macrognathus pancalus (Hamilton, 1822) under captive condition. International Journal of Aquatic Biology. 8(1): 73-82.
  7. Brewer, S.K., Rabeni, C.F. and Papoulias, D.M. (2008). Comparing histology and gonadosomatic index for determining spawning condition of small bodied riverine fishes. Ecology of Freshwater Fish. 17(1): 54-58.
  8. Chakraborty, B.K., Mirza, Z.A., Miah, M.I., Habib, M.A.B. and Chakraborty, A. (2007). Reproductive cycle of the endangered sarpunti, Puntius sarana (Hamilton, 1822) in Bangladesh. Asian Fisheries Science. 20: 145-164.
  9. De Silva, S.S. (2012). Aquaculture: a newly emergent food production sector and perspectives of its impacts on biodiversity and conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation. 21(12): 3187-3220.
  10. Dey, R., Bhattacharyya, S. and Maitra, S.K. (2004). Temporal pattern of ovarian activity in a major carp Catla catla and its possible environmental correlate in an annual cycle. Biological Rhythm Research. 35:329-353.
  11. Diana, J.S. (2009). Aquaculture production and biodiversity conservation. Bioscience. 59 (1): 27-38.
  12. Faridi, A.A., Farah Bano, F. and Serajuddin, M. (2020). Aspects of reproductive biology of the lesser spiny eel Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch, 1786) from river Ganga, Uttar Pradesh, India. Indian Journal of Fisheries. 67(2): 15-22.
  13. Fishelson, L., Goren, M., Van Vuren, J. and Manelis, R. (1996). Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Barbus spp., Capoeta damascina and their hybrids (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) in Israel. Hydrobiologia. 317:79-88.
  14. Flores, A., Wiff, R., Díaz, E. and Gálvez P. (2015). Reproductive biology of female cardinalfish, Epigonus crassicaudus de Buen, 1959. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 31(4): 718-723.
  15. Foucher, R.P. and Beamish, R.J. (1980). Production of noviable oocytes by pacific hake (Merluccius productus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 37:41-48.
  16. Galib, S.M., Samad, M.A., Mohsin, A.B.M., Flowra, F.A. and Alam, M.T. (2009). Present status of fishes in the Chalan Beel-the largest beel (wetland) of Bangladesh. International Journal of Animal and Fisheries Science. 2(3): 214-218.
  17. Guraya, S.S., Kaur, R. and Saxena, P.K. (1975). Morphology of ovarian changes during reproductive cycle of the fish, Mystus tengara (Ham). Acta Anatomica. 91:222-260.
  18. Htun-Han, M. (1978a). The reproductive biology of the dab Limanda limanda (L.) in the North Sea: seasonal changes in the ovary. Journal of Fish Biology. 13(3): 351-359.
  19. Htun-Han, M.(1978b). The reproductive biology of the dab Limanda limanda (L.) in the North Sea: seasonal changes in the testis. Journal of Fish Biology. 13(3): 361-367.
  20. Htun-Han, M. (1978c). The reproductive biology of the dab Limanda limanda (L.) in the North Sea: gonosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and condition factor. Journal of Fish Biology. 13(3): 369-378.
  21. Hunter, J. R. and Macewicz, B. J. (1985). Rates of atresia in the ovary of captive and wild northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax. Fishery Bulletin. 83(2): 119-136. 
  22. Lal, S.S. (2009). Practical Zoology Vertebrate. Revised edition. Rastogi Publication. 
  23. Lubzens, E., Young, G., Bobe, J. and Cerda, J. (2010). Oogenesis in teleosts: How fish eggs are formed. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 165:367-389.
  24. Louiz, I., Ben-Attia, M. and Ben-Hassine O.K. (2009). Gonadosomatic index and gonad histopathology of Gobius niger (Gobiidea, Teleost) from Bizerta lagoon (Tunisia): evidence of reproduction disturbance. Fisheries Research. 100(3): 266-273.
  25. Maitland, P.S. (1995). The conservation of freshwater fish: past and present experience. Biological Conservation. 72(2): 259-270.
  26. Mayer, I., Shackley, S.E. and Ryland, J. (1988). Aspects of reproductive biology of the bass, Dicentrachus labrax L. 1. An histological and histochemical study of oocyte development. Journal of Fish Biology. 33:609-622.
  27. McAdam, D.S.O., Liley, N.R. and Tan, E.S. (1999). Comparison of reproductive indicators and analysis of the reproductive seasonality of the tinfoil barb, Puntius schwanenfeldii, in the Perak River, Malaysia. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 55(4): 369-380.
  28. Miranda, L.A., Strüssmann, C.A. and Somoza, G.M. (2009). Effects of light and temperature conditions on the expression of GnRH and GtH genes and levels of plasma steroids in Odontesthes bonariensis females. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 35(1): 101-108.
  29. Nagahama, Y. (1983). The functional morphology of teleost gonads. In: Fish Physiology, [W.S. Hoar, D.J. Randall, E.M. Donaldson (Ed.)]. Vol. 9. Academic press, New York. pp. 233-275.
  30. Pant, M.C. (1968). The process of atresia and fate of discharged follicle in the ovary of Glyptothoraxpectinopterus. Zoologischer Anzeiger. 181:153-160.
  31. Pathak, B.C., Ali, R. and Serajuddin, M. (2012). Comparative analysis of reproductive traits in barred spiny eel, Macrognathus pancalus (Hamilton, 1822) from lotic and lentic ecosystems of Gangetic Basin, India. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences. 4(5): 470-479.
  32. Pieterse, G.M. (2004). Histopathological changes in the testis of Oreochromis mossambicus (Cichlidae) as a biomarker of heavy metal pollution. Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg. pp.183.
  33. Raghavan, R., Dahanukar, N., Tlusty, M.F., Rhyne, A.L., Kumar, K.K., Molur, S. and Rosser, A.M. (2013). Uncovering an obscure trade: threatened freshwater fishes and the aquarium pet markets. Biological Conservation. 164: 158-169.
  34. Rahman, A.K.A. (1989). Freshwater fishes of Bangladesh. Zoological Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. pp.364.
  35. Sathyanesan, A.G. (1959). Seasonal histological changes in the testes of a catfish, Mystus seenghala. Journal of Zoological Society of India. 11(1): 52-59.
  36. Sathyanesan, A.G. (1962). The ovarian cycle in the catfish, Mystus seenghala. Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India. 28:497-506.
  37. Scott, A.R. (1987). Reproductive endocrinology of fish. In: Fundamentals of Comparative Vertebrate Endocrinology. [C. Chester Jones, RM. Ingleton, J.C. Phillips (Ed.)]. New York: Plenum Press. pp. 223-56.
  38. Schulz, R.W., Franca, L.R., Lareyre, J.J., Le Gac, F., Chiarini-Garcia, H., Nobrega, R.H. and Miura, T. (2010). Spermatogenesis in fish. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 165(3): 390-411.
  39. Selmen, K., Wallace, R.A. and Barr, V. (1986). Oogenesis in Fundulus heterolitus IV. Yolk vesicle formation. Journal of Experimental Zoology. 239(2): 277-278.
  40. Serajuddin, M. andAli, R. (2005). Food and feeding habits of striped spiny eel, Macrognathus pancalus (Hamilton). Indian Journal of Fisheries. 52(1): 81-86.
  41. Sivakumaran, K.P., Brown, P., Stoessel, D. and Giles, A. (2003). Maturation and reproductive biology of female wild carp, Cyprinus carpio, in Victoria, Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 68: 321-332. 
  42. Suresh, V.R., Biswas, B.K., Vinci, G.K., Mitra, K. and Mukherjee, A. (2006). Biology and fishery of barred spiny eel, Macrognathus pancalus Hamilton. Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria. 36(1): 31-37.
  43. Swarup, K., Srivastava, S. and Das, V.K. (1972). Sexual dimorphism in the spiny eel Mastacembelus puncalus. Current Science. 41(2): 68-69.
  44. Talwar, P.K. and Jhingran, A.G. (1991). Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Oxford-IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. pp.1158.
  45. Tsikliras, A.C., Stergiou, K.I. and Froese, R. (2013). Editorial note on reproductive biology of fishes. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria. 43(1): 1-5.
  46. Treasurer, J.W. (1990). The annual reproductive cycle of pike, Esox lucius L. in two Scottish lakes. Journal of Fish Biology. 36: 29-46.
  47. Unal, G., Cetinkaya, O. and Elp, M. (1999). Histological investigation of gonad development of Chalcalburnus tarichi. Turkish Journal of Zoology. 23:329-338.
  48. Verma, R. (2013). Seasonal changes in the histological profile of the testicular and ovarian cycle of Labeo dyocheilus. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Sciences. 3:143-149.
  49. West, G. (1990). Methods of assessing ovarian development in fishes: A review. Marine Freshwater Research. 41: 199-222.
  50. Wootton, R.J., Evans, G.W. and Mills, L. (1978). Annual cycle in female three spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) from an upland and lowland population. Journal of Fish Biology. 12(4): 331-343.
  51. Zahid, M., Malik, S. and Rani, S. (2013). Spawning behaviour of barred spiny eel, Macrognathus pancalus, in the River Gomti, India. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 29: 1109-1113.
  52. Zaki, M.I., Abu-Shabana, M.B. and Assem, S.S. (1995). The reproductive biology of the saddled bream, Oblada melanura from the mediterranean coasts of Egypt. Italy. Oebalia. 21: 17-26.

Global Footprints