Loading...

Proximate Composition, In vitro Digestibility and Anti Nutritional Factors of Millets and Legume Grains

DOI: 10.18805/ag.D-5248    | Article Id: D-5248 | Page : 80-83
Citation :- Proximate Composition, In vitro Digestibility and Anti Nutritional Factors of Millets and Legume Grains.Agricultural Science Digest.2022.(42):80-83
Neha Rana, Saroj Dahiya neha28rana@gmail.com
Address : Department of Foods and Nutrition, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, Haryana, India.
Submitted Date : 28-07-2020
Accepted Date : 4-03-2021

Abstract

Background: Whole grains serve as a preferred carbohydrate source in a modern Indian diet to achieve a balance of macronutrients, micronutrients, fibers and phytochemicals for optimal health promotion and prevent chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and obesity. The five most common ancient grains that have the potential to be used more in Indian cooking are amaranth, barley, pearl millet, finger millet and sorghum. These grains have higher fiber and protein content.
Methods: The study was conducted to investigate chemical composition, sugar content, in vitro protein and starch digestibility and antinutrient content of pearl millet, sorghum and mung bean. Effect of blanching and germination on chemical composition of pearl millet and mung bean, respectively were determined. 
Conclusion: The results of proximate composition of grains revealed that germinated mung bean had significantly highest amount of protein, total soluble sugar, non reducing sugar content, in vitro protein digestibility. Sorghum had significantly higher content of total carbohydrate, reducing sugar, starch and in vitro starch digestibility. Crude fat, phytic acid and polyphenol were highest in unprocessed pearl millet. Germination and blanching of seeds cause the significant reduction in anti-nutrient content of mung bean and pearl millet, respectively.

Keywords

Anti-nutritional factors In vitro digestibility Proximate composition Sugars

References

  1. AOAC. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Washington, D.C.
  2. Anju. (2005). Nutritional evaluation and product development from white and yellow pearl millet varieties. M.Sc. Thesis, CCSHAU, Hisar, India.
  3. Badubi, S.S. (2012). Nutritive evaluation of four sorghum cultivars grown in Botswana. UNISWA J. of Agric. 16: 49-54.
  4. Bhati D, Bhatnagar V and Acharya V. (2016). Effect of pre-milling processing techniques on pearl millet grains with special reference to in vitro iron availability. Asian J Dairy Food Res. 35: 76-80.
  5. Çakir,O., Uçarli, C., Tarhan, C., Pekmez, M. and Kara, N.T. (2019). Nutritional and health benefits of legumes and their distinctive genomic properties. Food Sci. Technol. 39(1): 1-12.
  6. Chavan, J.K. and Kachare, D.P. (1994). Effect of seed treatment on lipolytic deterioration of pearl millet flour during storage. J. Food Sci. Technol. 31 (1): 80-81.
  7. Chitra, U., Singh, U. and Rao, P.V. (1997). Effect of varieties and processing methods on the total and ionizable iron contents of grain legumes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45(10): 3859-3862.
  8. Clegg, K.M. (1956). The application of anthrone reagent to the estimation of starch in cereals. J. Sci. Food. Agri. 7: 40-44.
  9. Dahiya, P.K. Linnemann, A.R., Khetarpaul, N., Grewal, R.B. and Nout, M.J.R. (2015). Mung bean: Technological and nutritional potential. Food Science and Nutrition. 55: 670-688.
  10. Demissew, A. and Meresa, A. (2017). Evaluation of anti-nutritional factor reduction techniques for pearl millet improved utilization system in Amhara region. Inter. J. of Agri. And Bio. Sci. 30-38.
  11. Elkonin, L.A., Italianskaya, J.V., Fadeeva, I.Yu., Bychkova, V.V. and Kozhemyakin, V.V. (2013). In vitro protein digestibility in grain sorghum: effect of genotype and interaction with starch digestibility. Euphytica. 193: 327-337. 
  12. Fayyaz, N., Mohebbatmohebbi and Milani, E. (2018). Effect of germination on nutrients, mineral, phytic acid and enzyme activity of mung bean. Acta Medica Mediterranea. 34: 597
  13. Gupta, N, Srivastava, A K., Pandey, V.N. (2012). Biodiversity and nutraceutical quality of some indian millets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Science.
  14. Kakati, P., Deka, S.C., Kotoki, D. and Saikia, S. (2010). Effect of traditional methods of processing on the nutrient contents and some antinutritional factors in newly developed cultivars of green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilezek] and black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] of Assam, India. Int. Food Res. J. 17: 377-384.
  15. Krishnan, R. and Meera, M. S. (2018). Pearl millet minerals: effect of processing on bioaccessibility. J Food Sci Technol. 55(9): 3362-3372.
  16. Kulthe, A.A., Thorat, S.S. and Lande S.B. (2016). Characterization of pearl millet cultivars for proximate composition, minerals and anti-nutritional contents. Advances in Life Sciences. 5(11): 4672-4675. 
  17. Lorensen, E., Prevosto, R and Wilson, K.A. 1981. The appearance of new active forms of trypsin inhibitor in germinating mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds. Plant Physiol. 68: 88-92.
  18. Mertz, E.T., Kirleis, A.W. and Sxtell, J.D. (1983). In vitro digestibility of protein in major food cereals. Fed. Proc. 32(5): 6026 phospho-tungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Ecology Viticulture. 16: 144-158.
  19. Noha, A., Mohammed, A., Mohamed, I. A., and Babiker, E. (2011). Nutritional evaluation of sorghum flour during processing of Injera. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. 5. 
  20. Ogbonna, A.C., Abuajah, C.I., Ide, E. O. and Udofia, O.A. (2012).    Effect of malting conditions on the nutritional and anti-nutritional factors of sorghum grist. Food Technology. 36(2): 64-72.
  21. Olu, M., Alamu, A.E. and Oluwajoba, S.O. (2013). The effect of sprouting on the in vitro digestibility of maize and cowpea. J. Adv. Lab. Res. Biol. 4(2): 82-86.
  22. Patni, D and Agrawal, M. (2017). Wonder millet – pearl millet, nutrient composition and potential health benefits - a review. International J. of Innovative Res. and Review. 5 (1): 6-14.
  23. Paul, T., Mozumder, N.H.M.R., Sayed, M.A. and Akhtaruzzaman, M. (2011). Proximate composition, mineral contents and determination of protease activity from green gram. Bangladesh Res. Pubs. J. 5: 207-213.
  24. Polak, R., Phillips, E. M. and Campbell, A. (2015). Legumes: health benefits and culinary approaches to increase intake. Clinical diabetes journals. 3(4): 198-205. 
  25. Singh, P.K., Gautam, A.K., Panwar, H., Singh, D.K., Srivastava, N., Bhagyawant, S.S. and Upadhayay, H. (2014). Effects of Germination on Antioxidant and Anti- Nutritional Factors of Commonly Used Pulses. Int. J. of Res. in Chem. and Environment. 4(2): 100-104. 
  26. Singh, U. and Jambunathan, R. (1981). Studies on desi and kabuli chickpea (Cicer arientinum) cultivars: Level of protease inhibitors, levels of polyphenolic compounds and in vitro digestibility. J. Food Sci. 46: 1364-1367.
  27. Singh, U., Khedekar, M. S. and Jambunathan, R. (1982). Studies on desi and kabuli chickpea cultivars: The level of amylase inhibitors, level of oligosaccharides and in vitro starch digestibility. J. Food Sci. Tech. 47: 510-516.
  28. Somogyi, M. (1945). A new reagent for determination of sugers. J. Biol. Chem. 160: 61-62.
  29. Souilah, R., Djabali, D., Belhadi, B., Mokrane, H., Boudries, N. and Nadjem, B. (2014). In vitro starch digestion in sorghum flour from Algerian cultivars. Food Science and Nutrition. 2(3): 251-259. 
  30. Swain, J. and Hills, W. E. (1959). The phenolic constituents pramus domestical. The qualitative analysis of phenolic constituents. J. Sci. Food. Agric. 10: 63-68.
  31. Tarun. (2014). Nutritional evaluation of mung bean (Vigna radiata) varieties and their utilization in development of value added products. M. Sc. Thesis. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India.
  32. Thakur, H. N. S. and Kumar, P. (2017). Anti-nutritional factors, their adverse effects and need for adequate processing to reduce them in food. Agric International. 4(1): 56-60.
  33. Uppal, V. and Bains, K. (2012). Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes. J Food Sci Technol. 49(2): 184-191.
  34. Yemm, E.W. and Willis, A.J. (1954). The estimation of carbo hydrates in plant extract by anthrone. Biochem. J. 54: 508-509.
  35. Yi-Shen, Z., Shuai, S. and Gerald, R.F. (2018). Mung bean proteins and peptides: nutritional, functional and bioactive properties. Food and Nutrition Research. 60: 1290.

Global Footprints