Loading...

Occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in Different Animal Species in Eastern Algeria

DOI: 10.18805/ag.D-329    | Article Id: D-329 | Page : 217-222
Citation :- Occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in Different Animal Species in Eastern Algeria.Agricultural Science Digest.2022.(42):217-222
Belkadi Souhila, Meradi Manel, Oucheriah Yasmine, Yahiaoui Fatima Ezzahra, Bouakaz Ahlam, Nezzar Kebaili Wissam, Heleili Nouzha souhilabelkadi@gmail.com
Address : Laboratory ESPA, Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences Institute, Department of Veterinary Sciences, Batna 1 University - 05000, Algeria.
Submitted Date : 11-12-2020
Accepted Date : 1-03-2021

Abstract

Background: Several animal species may act as a possible reservoir for transmission of MRSA to human. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of Staphylococci from animals.
Methods: A total of 754 nasal and rectal swab samples collected from apparently healthy animals at Batna and Setif governorate, eastern Algeria. For this purpose, we studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates by conventional methods (Disk diffusion test and methicillin resistance by Cefoxitin disk diffusion test).
Result: The overall prevalence of S. aureus isolates from 754 samples was 43.61%, with a high rate of S. aureus isolation in rabbits (92%). Goats, bovine, dogs, cats, horses, poultry presented a medium prevalence with 31.91%, 25%, 23.75% 21.25%,15% and 15% respectively, while the lowest rate was observed in sheep with 10%. MRSA were isolated in all animal species (29.46%). All detected isolates were multiple drug resistant (MDR). A complete resistance (100%) was noted for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin in sheep and horses and to penicillin in dogs. MRSA is a serious problem for human and animal health; therefore, several experiments must be carried out to demonstrate possible transmission of MRSA between companion or food-chain animals and humans, as well as some MRSA clones of human origin that have adapted to new animal hosts eventually by losing useless virulence factors or acquiring new mobile genetic elements.

Keywords

Companion animals Livestock Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal portage Rectal portage

References

  1. Akkou, M., Antri, K., Bachtarzi, M.A., Bes, M., Tristan, A., Dauwalder, O., Kaidi R., Meugnier, H., Tazir, M., Etienne, J., Laurent, F. and Ramdani-Bouguessa, N. (2016). Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with bovine mastitis and nasal carriage of workers in contact to animals in Algeria. Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 36(2): 184-188.
  2. Al-Thani, R.F. and Al-Ali, F. (2012). Incidences and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus apecies isolated from animals in different Qatari farms. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 6: 7454-7458.
  3. Baptiste, K.E., Williams, K., Willams, N.J., Wattret, A., Clegg, P.D. and Dawson, S. (2005). Methicillin-resistant staphylococci in companion animals. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal.11: 1942-1944. 
  4. Bounar-Kechih, S., Hamdi, M.T., Aggad, H., Meguenni, N. and Cantekin, Z. (2018). Carriage Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Poultry and Cattle in Northern Algeria. Veterinary Medicine International, 5 p.
  5. Branchet, M. C., Boisnic, S., Frances, C. and Robert, A. M. (1990). Skin thickness changes in normal aging skin. Journal of Gerontology. 36: 28-35.
  6. Carlet, J. and Shlemmer, B. (2015). Consommation d’antibiotiques et résistance aux antibiotiques en France : nécessité d’une mobilisation déterminée et durable. Bilan des données de surveillance. 17-150.
  7. Chairat, S., Gharsa, H., Lozano, C., Gómez-Sanz, E., Gómez, P., Zarazaga, M., Boudabous, A., Torre, C., Ben Slama, K. (2015). Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from raw meat samples in Tunisia: Detection of clonal lineage ST398 from the African Continent. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 12: 686-92.
  8. Cong, Y., Yang S. and Rao, X. (2020). Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: A review of case updating and clinical features. Journal of Advanced Research. 21: 169-176.
  9. Daaloul-Jedidi, M., Soudani, A. and Messadi, L. (2016). Nasal and rectal carriage of coagulase positive Staphylococcus in healthy goats. Journal of new sciences, Agriculture and Bio-technology. 33(4): 1910-1913.
  10. El-Seedy, F.R., Samy, A.A., Salam, H.S.H., Khairy, E.A. and Koraney, A.A. (2017). Polymerase chain reaction detection of genes responsible for multiple antibiotic resistance Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food of animal origin in Egypt, Veterinary World. 10(10): 1205-1211.
  11. EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) (2019). Breakpoint Tables for Interpretation of Zone Diameters (Version 2.0). Guidelines. European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 
  12. Faires, M.C., Tater, K.C. and Weese, J.S. (2009). An investigation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in people and pets in the same household with an infected person or infected pet. Journal of the American Veterinary and Medical Association. 235(5): 540-543.
  13. Giacinti, G., Carfora, V., Caprioli, A., Sagrafoli, D., Marri, N., Giangolini, G., Amoruso, R., Iurescia, M., Stravino, F., Dottarelli, S., Feltrin, F., Franco, A., Amatiste, S. and Battisti, A. (2017). Prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying mecAormecC and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in dairy sheep farms in central Italy. Journal of Dairy Science. 100(10): 7857-7863.
  14. Grema, H.A., Geidam Y.A., Gadzama G.B., Ameh J.A. and Suleiman A. (2015). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): A review. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 3(2): P. 79.
  15. Haaber, J., Friberg, C., McCreary, M., Lin, R., Cohen, N.S. and Ingmerb, H. (2015). Reversible Antibiotic Tolerance induced in Staphylococcus aureus by concurrent drug exposure. mBio 6(1): 02268-14.
  16. Habibullah, M.Z., Espinosa-Gongora, C., Damborg, P., Sieber, R.N., Munk, R., Husted, L., Moodley, A., Skov, R., Larsen, J. and Guardabassi, L. (2017). Horses in Denmark Are a Reservoir of Diverse Clones of Methicillin-Resistant and –Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Frontiers in Microbiology. 8: 543.
  17. Hachemi, A., Zenia, S., Denia, M.F., Guessoum, M., Hachemi, M.M. and Ait-Oudhia, K. (2019). Epidemiological study of sausage in Algeria: Prevalence, quality assessment and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates and the risk factors associated with consumer habits affecting foodborne poisoning, Veterinary World. 12(8): 1240-1250.
  18. Jensen, S.O., Lyon B.R. (2009). Genetics of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Future Microbiology Journal. 4(5) : 565-582. https://doi.org/10.2217/fmb.09.30.
  19. Labrecque, O. (2007). Sensibilité d’isolats de Staphylococcus aureus d’origine bovine aux antimicrobiens et présence de gènes de résistance. Thèse de doctorat. Université de Montréal 100p. 
  20. Leonard, F.C. and Markey, B.K. (2008). Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals: a review. The Vetereinary Journal.175: 27-36.
  21. Linhares, L.L., Yang M, Sreevatsan, S., Munoz-Zanzi, C.A., Torremorell, M. and Davies, P.R. (2015). The effect of anatomic site and age ondetection of Staphylococcus aureus in pigs. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 27(1): 55-60.
  22. Loeffler, A., Boag, A.K., Sung, J., Lindsay, J.A., Guardabassi, L., Dalsgaard, A., Smith, H., Stevens, K.B. and Lloyd, D.H. (2005). Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among staff and pets in a small animal referral hospital in the UK. Journal of. Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 56(4): 692-697.
  23. Lozano, C., Gharsa H, Ben Slama K, Zarazaga and M, Torres C. (2016). Staphylococcus aureus in Animals and Food: Methicillin Resistance, Prevalence and Population Structure. A Review in the African Continent. Microorganisms. 4: 12.
  24. Mai-siyama, I.B., Okon, K.O., Adamu, N.B., Askira, U.M., Isyaka, T.M., Adamu, S.G. and Mohammed, A. (2014). Methicllin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization rate among ruminant animals slaughtered forhuman consumption and contact persons in Maiduguri, Nigeria. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 8: 2643-2649.
  25. Mesfin, Z. (2015). Hygienic practices, bacteriological quality of cow milk and its public health importance along the dairy value chain in sidama high lands of southern Ethiopia. Mémoire de master en science vétérinaire et santé publique. Université, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia, 81p.
  26. Moreno-Grúa, E., Pérez-Fuentes, S., Muñoz-Silvestre, A., Viana, D., Fernández-Ros, A.B., Sanz-ejero, C., Corpa, J.M. and Selva, L. (2018). Characterization of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Obtained from Commercial Rabbitries Located in the Iberian Peninsula. Frontiers in Microbiology. 9: 1812.
  27. Mustapha, M., Bukar-Kolo, Y.M., Geidam, Y.A and Gulani, I.A. (2016). Phenotypic and genotypic detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hunting dogs in Maiduguri metropolitan, Borno State, Nigeria, Veterinary World. 9(5): 501-506.
  28. Noble, W.C., Virani, Z. and Cree, R.G.A. (1992). Co-transfer of the vancomycin and other resistancegenes from Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 12201 to Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 93: 195-198.
  29. Quinn, P.J., Carter M.E., Markey B.K. and Carter GR. (2000). Staphylococcus species In: Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, Mosby, Edinburgh 118-126.
  30. Radwan, I.A.H., Shehata, A.A.E., Abdel-Ghani, A.E., Abdullah, M.M. and Abdraboh, A.A.M. (2015). Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from livestock and human. Global Veterinaria. 14(2): 274-281.
  31. Sarhan, S.R. and Mohammed, H.A. (2019). Isolation and Identification of mec A gene from MRSA isolated from local sheep and evaluate the inhibitory effect of cranberry leaves extract in-vitro. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 12(5): 2131-2136.
  32. Sharma, D.S., Pradeep K.S. and Anjali M. (2011). Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk of dairy cattle. International Research Journal of Microbiology. 14: 466-470.
  33. Schmidt, V.M., Williams, N.J., Pinchbeck, G., Corless, C.E., Shaw, S., Mc Ewan, N., Dawson, S. and Nuttal, T. (2014). Antimicrobial resistance and characterization of staphylococci isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom. BMC Veterinary Research. 10: 17.
  34. Srour, G. (2006). Amélioration durable de l’élevage des petits ruminants au Liban. Thèse de doctorat en Science agronomiques. Institut national Polytechnique de Lorraine 219 p.
  35. Stefani, S., Chung, D.R., Lindsay, J.A., Friedrichd, A.W., Kearns, A.M., Westhf, H. and Mac Kenzie, F.M. (2012). Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): global epidemiology and harmonization of typing methods. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 39: 273-282.
  36. Vareille, M., Kieninger, E., Edwards, M.R. and Regamey, N. (2011). The airway epithelium: soldier in the fight against respiratory viruses. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 24: 210-229.
  37. Wang, J., Sang, L., Sun, S., Chen, Y. and Chen, D. (2019). Xie X. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from rabbits in Fujian, China. Epidemiology and Infection. 147: 256.
  38. Weese, J.S. (2005). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an emerging pathogen in small animals. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 41: 150-157.

Global Footprints