Indian Journal of Animal Research

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Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 57 issue 7 (july 2023) : 875-881

Egg Quality Traits, Chemical Analysis and Fatty Acid Composition in Chukar Partridges Supplemented with Garlic and Onion Powder

Mustafa Çam1,*, Serdar Güler1, Eyüp Başer2, Kemal Kirikçi1
1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya-42250, Turkey.
2Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research Institute, Konya-42020, Turkey.
Cite article:- Çam Mustafa, Güler Serdar, Başer Eyüp, Kirikçi Kemal (2023). Egg Quality Traits, Chemical Analysis and Fatty Acid Composition in Chukar Partridges Supplemented with Garlic and Onion Powder . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 57(7): 875-881. doi: 10.18805/IJAR.BF-1481.
Background: This study was carried out to determine the effect of addition of 1% dietary garlic and onion powder on the internal and external quality characteristics and chemical and fatty acid composition of Chukar partridges eggs.

Methods: A total of 240 Chukar partridges with 60-week age was assigned to four dietary treatment group: control, 1% onion powder, 1% garlic powder and garlic onion powder, respectively. Totally, 92 eggs obtained from partridges were used for the study.

Result: The addition of onion powder had significant effect on yolk weight (P<0.05). Supplementation of the diets with garlic and onion powder did not significantly affect quality traits of chukar eggs (P>0.05). Moisture, ash and protein contents and 16 fatty acid composition of chukar eggs were not statistically affected by the addition of garlic and onion powder either. In conclusion, the addition of 1% dietary garlic and onion powder did not cause a significant change in the internal and external quality characteristics and fatty acid composition of the Chukar partridge eggs. Increasing the rate of garlic and onion powder to the chukar ration may cause some significant differences on the egg parameters.
There are numerous feed additives that could be added to the ration or drinking water of birds to increase production and decrease the spread of diseases (Griggs and Jacob, 2005). Antibiotics in prophylactic doses which had been used to reduce treatment costs, improved yields and welfare in poultry diets (Hajati and Rezaei, 2010). However, increasing of antibiotic resistance, emerged by unregulated and prolonged use of antibiotics, has caused the restriction of antibiotic uses and some feed additives alternative to antibiotics (Ogbuewu et al., 2019). Some of the safe and recent natural alternatives are prebiotic compounds, probiotic organisms (Patterson and Burkholder, 2003; Hajati and Rezaei, 2010; Hashemipour et al., 2011; Khan and Naz, 2013) and phytobiotics such as some herbs, plant extracts and spices (Barreto et al., 2008; Khan et al., 2012; Diaz-Sanchez et al., 2015; Kocabağlı and Alp, 2015).

Garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) are some of the phytobiotics that could be used as feed additives instead of antibiotics in poultry diets (Damaziak et al., 2017; Kothari et al., 2019). Both garlic and onion, which contain organosulfur compounds such as allicin and quarcentin, is known to have antibacterial (Olobatoke and Mulugeta, 2011; Rahimi et al., 2011; Aydoğan, 2018), hypocholesterolemic (Azeke and Ekpo, 2009; Canoğulları et al., 2010; Rahimi et al., 2011; Al-Shuwaili et al., 2015) and antioxidant effects (Slimestad et al., 2007; Bozin et al., 2008). Garlic has been particularly used as medication due to its therapeutic agent for 5000 years (Amagase et al., 2001)

Eggs are highly valuable nutritious foods as they support development of embryo during incubation process. The shape and shell characteristics of eggs are essential for market prices in terms of consumer’s acceptability while the interior characteristics and chemical composition of eggs have an important role in egg product industry (Song et al., 2000). Like the eggs of other species, the quality of partridge eggs is known to be affected by various environmental factors (Çağlayan et al., 2009; Günhan and Kırıkçı, 2017). Therefore, numerous researches have been conducted to determine the factors affecting egg quality for several decades. The effect of adding garlic powder on egg quality in quails (Yalçın et al., 2007; Canoğulları et al., 2010), in turkeys (Al-Shuwaili et al., 2015), in hens (Lim et al., 2006; Yalçın et al., 2006; Olobatoke and Mulugeta, 2011; Damaziak et al., 2017) was comprehensively studied by many researches. The reports of most studies revealed that 0.5-1% amounts of garlic powder (Yalçın et al., 2006; Yalçın et al., 2007; Canoğulları et al., 2010) and 1% amount of onion powder (Omer et al., 2019) could be added to rations without any adverse effects on  egg quality. Ao et al. (2010) also reported the saturated fatty acids, which cause to increase the risk of coronary heart diseases in humans decreased when garlic powder was added to the poultry diets.

The studies about investigating the effect of garlic and onion powder on egg quality were mostly carried out in hens with conflicting results. Even though some studies about investigating adding probiotics and feed additives in rations for various purposes were conducted in literature, such topic is not so well documented in partridge eggs (Arslan, 2004; Gülşen et al., 2010; Hashemipour et al., 2011; Tavakkoli et al., 2014; Sevim et al., 2020). The aim of this study was to investigate the internal and external qualities, chemical compositions of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) eggs with addition of garlic and onion powder in the diets.
The study was carried out during the spring period in 2020 at Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research Institute (37°52' 5.7612" and 32°33' 12.8088") where the climate was dominantly seen as steppe. Biochemical analyses were carried out at a commercial food control laboratory in Istanbul. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Experimental Medicine Research and Application Centre of Selcuk University (SUDAM, 2020/60) report.

In this study, 240 partridges with 60-week age were equally divided into control (C) (basal diet) and 3 treatment diet groups, supplemented with 1% onion (O), 1% garlic (G), 1% onion and 1% garlic (OG). The compositions of basal diet were shown in Table 1. The 60 partridges from each group were housed in semi-open wire mesh cages in the ratio of one male to three females with 120 × 600 × 150 cm dimensions.

Table 1: Basal diet composition.

Twenty-three eggs from the partridges of each experimental groups were used in the study. During the first month of the study, twenty daily collected eggs from each treatment cages were assessed by their internal and external qualities in the same day. The eggs and their components were weighed using an electronic balance with 0.01 g sensitivity. The assessment of egg shapes, internal and external characteristics of eggs were determined with an electronic digital calliper (Kanon EMS-150).

Egg shapes, internal and external quality traits of eggs were evaluated according to the following equations below (Narushin, 2005; Alkan et al., 2015):
Shape index (%) = Egg width/Egg length × 100
Shell surface area (cm2):= 3.9782 × Egg weight0.75056
Albumen weight (g)= Egg weight - (Yolk weight + Shell weight)

Haugh unit= 100 log [Albumen height - (1.7 × egg weight 0.37) + 7.57]
Egg volume (cm3)= [0.6057 - (0.0018 × egg width)] × Egg length × egg width2

Egg surface area (cm2)= [3.155 - (0.0136 × egg length) + 0.0115 × egg breadth] × egg length × egg width

Three chukar eggs from each experimental group were sent to the laboratory for analysis of chemical and fatty acid composition. Water (moisture) content of eggs were determined by azeotropic distillation (TS 1129 ISO 1026). Kjeldahl method was used to calculate protein content in the eggs (TS 1620). Ash content soluble in hydrochloric acid was also determined according to the standards of TS ISO 763. The method of capillary gas chromatography was used for determination of fatty acid composition in chukar eggs (TS EN ISO 12966 - 1, 4).

Differences among diet treatments to determine internal and external egg quality traits were analysed by One-Way ANOVA (SPSS ver. 22.0). Bonferroni correction test was used to determine differences among multiple groups means considering 5% probability. Differences among diet groups in terms of chemical components and fatty acid composition of eggs were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test.
The egg shape index was found to be 75.44 in Table 2, which was slightly lower than the results of similar studies conducted in chukar eggs (Song et al., 2000; Hashemipour et al., 2011; Çağlayan et al., 2014; Alkan et al., 2015; Aygün and Olgun, 2019). This difference could be attributed to the age of hens which was reported by Han et al. (1991).

Table 2: Egg shape traits of treatment groups (mean).

Addition of garlic and onion powder to chukar rations had no significant effect on egg shape traits (P>0.05). The results were in accordance with the studies of laying hens supplemented with 0.5% to 1% (Yalçın et al., 2006) and between 3% and 5% (Olobatoke and Mulugeta, 2011) garlic powder. Similarly, Omer et al. (2019) reported adding onion or garlic powder to poultry ration wouldn’t change shape index of laying hens.

The effect of dietary garlic and onion powder supplementation on egg component ratios in Chukar partridge is shown in Table 3.

Table 3: The effect of dietary garlic and onion powder supplementation on egg component ratios in Chukar partridge.

The proportion of egg components was determined as 57.01% albumen, 33.56% yolk and 9.43% shell, showing that it had been in the normal range (Stadelman, 1995). There was no significant effect (P>0.05) among feeding groups in terms of the proportion of egg components (Table 3). The weight of egg components among treatment groups showed similar trend except the yolk weight (Table 4). Adding 1% onion powder to the ration increased yolk weights of chukar eggs (P<0.05) in agreement with the reports of Damaziak et al. (2017) who found a positive increase in eggs of hens supplemented with onion powder. However, Dosoky et al. (2021) reported insignificant effect of onion supplementation on egg yolk weight. Garlic supplementation of rations didn’t have any significant changes (P>0.05) in egg yolk weight which was in accordance with the reports of similar studies (Chowdhury et al., 2002; Yalçın et al., 2006; Canoğulları et al., 2010; Olobatoke and Mulugeta, 2011). Numerous studies had varied results in egg weight change when the hens were supplemented with different amounts of garlic or onion powders (Lim et al., 2006; Olobatoke and Mulugeta, 2011; Omer et al., 2019). In the study, we carefully collected the chukar eggs with the weights of 19-21 g which were in the range of chukar eggs (Kırıkçı et al., 2018). Since possible inconsistent results might have occurred, there was no need to discuss the comparison of egg quality in this section.

Table 4: The effect of dietary garlic and onion powder supplemetation on egg weight components.

The eggshell was thicker than those of the studies about chukars (Song et al., 2000; Hashemipour et al., 2011; Alkan and Türker, 2021). Adding 1% rate of garlic and onion powder to the chukar rations did not affect eggshell traits significantly (P>0.05) (Table 5). There are numerous studies that reported laying hen or quail eggs supplemented with different amounts of garlic powder showed no significant differences in terms of egg shell quality (Lim et al., 2006; Yalçın et al., 2006; Yalçın et al., 2007; Ao et al., 2010). Damaziak et al. (2017) observed an increase of eggshell quality in the groups supplemented with onion extract. Dosoky et al. (2021) reported no significant change of quail eggshell thickness when the ration was supplemented with onion powder.

Table 5: The effect of dietary garlic and onion powder supplementation on eggshell traits in Chukar partridge.

The internal quality traits were found to be higher than those of other chukar partridges (Song et al., 2000; Çağlayan et al., 2014; Alkan et al., 2015; Alkan and Türker, 2021; Çam et al., 2022). The main reason of this difference might be due to the time of egg quality assessment which was conducted in the first hours after collection of fresh eggs. There was no significant effect of 1% addition of garlic powder on the internal traits of chukar eggs (P>0.05) (Table 6). Similarly, various studies also showed that inclusion of different amount of garlic powder in the diets of different poultry species had no significant changes in egg internal quality (Yalçın et al., 2006; Yalçın et al., 2007; Al Aqil, 2016). Even though no significant effect of internal quality were occurred among dietary groups, an increasing trend was seen in the groups supplemented with onion powder in this study (P<0.1). Likewise, Damaziak et al. (2017) reported that adding onion extract in layer hens’ diet would improve the quality of eggs. However, quercetin, which is abundant in onion, had no significant effect on egg quality (Liu et al., 2014). Dosoky et al. (2021) reported the quality parameters of quail eggs weren’t significantly affected by dietary inclusion of onion powder (0.8%). Omer et al. (2019) reported that there was no significant effect of adding dietary onion and garlic powder on Haugh unit of laying hens. But, in the same study, they also found a statistical effect in yolk index. The amount of feed additives in poultry ration might affect the success of the study. For instance, 1% addition of garlic and onion powder were implemented in this study. Canoğulları et al. (2010) reported that internal qualities of quail eggs might be affected by more than 1% dietary garlic powder. This increment also agrees with the findings of Olobatoke and Mulugeta (2011) who reported a significant increase in Haugh units of the eggs with the addition of 3% garlic powder. As we analysed the quality of eggs in the first month of the study, the duration of the study might change the results of egg traits. For instance, Ao et al. (2010) couldn’t find any significant differences on dietary groups supplemented with different doses of garlic powder. But in the 5th week of the study period, they reported a significant change in the internal egg qualities of dietary groups supplemented with garlic powder.

Table 6: Internal egg traits of chukars among treatment groups.

Chemical compositions of the eggs are shown in Table 7. The chemical content of the chukar eggs was observed to be slightly lower for moisture content and higher for crude ash and protein content than those of chukars determined by Song et al. (2000). Chemical composition of chukar eggs showed no significant difference among treatment groups (P>0.05).

Table 7: The effect of dietary garlic and onion powder supplementation on egg moisture, ash and protein components in Chukar partridge.

As presented in Table 8, adding neither 1% garlic powder nor 1% onion powder to the diets significantly affected fatty acid composition of chukar eggs (P>0.05) in accordance with the results of Ao et al. (2010). However, Ao et al. (2010) reported decreasing of SFA and increasing of PUFA occurred when the amount of garlic additives was increased to the rate of 2% or 3%, which was beneficial to human health. The differences in implementing methods and duration of adding garlic and onion powder to the feeding groups might be responsible for the variations among the studies.

Table 8: The effect of dietary garlic and onion powder supplementation on egg fatty acids composition in Chukar partridge

As a result of this study, addition of 1% garlic and onion powder to the ration did not have any significant effect on internal and external quality characteristics and fatty acid composition of eggs except a statistical effect on yolk weight in the group supplemented with %1 onion powder. Considering the beneficial effect of human health, our results proves that garlic and onion powder can be added to chukar ration without any adverse effect against the egg quality parameters. Therefore, further studies aiming at the beneficial effects of different doses of onion and garlic powder addition in poultry rations on egg internal and external quality characteristics, fatty acid composition and thus on human health are needed.
The authors are grateful to Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research Institute for allowing this research. The authors wish to thank Mücahit Çam from Ankara University for English proofreading of the manuscript. The summary of this study was presented as an oral presentation (abstract) in the International Aegean Symposiums on Natural and Medical Sciences II.

No financial support was received from any institution or organization in this study.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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