Indian Journal of Animal Research

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Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 57 issue 7 (july 2023) : 943-950

Exploring the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Attributes and Resilience Capacity of Murrah Buffalo-based Livestock Production System in Changing Climatic Scenario

Ruchi Singh1,*, Sanjit Maiti2, Sanchita Garai2, S.K. Jha2, Mukesh Bhakat3, A.K. Dixit4, Anjali Aggarwal5
1Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University, Jabalpur-482 001, Madhya Pradesh, India.
2Dairy Extension Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, Haryana, India.
3Livestock Production Management, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, Haryana, India.
4Division of Dairy Economics, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, Haryana, India.
5Division of Animal Physiology, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, Haryana, India.
Cite article:- Singh Ruchi, Maiti Sanjit, Garai Sanchita, Jha S.K., Bhakat Mukesh, Dixit A.K., Aggarwal Anjali (2023). Exploring the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Attributes and Resilience Capacity of Murrah Buffalo-based Livestock Production System in Changing Climatic Scenario . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 57(7): 943-950. doi: 10.18805/IJAR.B-5071.
Background: The present study was conducted to study the resilience capacity towards changing climate of a farming community who reared specifically Murrah buffaloes in their livestock production system for their livelihood. As the study area was breeding tract of Murrah buffalo, hence in-depth study of resilience was performed in frequent changing climate. 

Methods: In order to assess the resilience capacity and their relation with socioeconomic characteristic, total 320 Murrah buffalo farmers across four districts in India’s Trans-Gangetic Plain, data were gathered using focused group discussions, PRA tools and in person interviews. Statistical tools such as principal component analysis for index development, cumulative square root methods for categorization of respondents and regression analysis were performed for exploring relationship. 

Result: Result depicted that majority of the farmers has medium level of climate resilience index score i.e. 0.456. Further, it was found that farmer’s involvement in social institute such as, gram panchayat, agriculture and dairy co-operative society, self-help group, farmers’ association and others affected their resilience capacity in changing climatic scenario. The need for better technology inclusion and access to more formal systems of finance is necessary to increase the overall resilience capacity of households. 
Recent report of ‘Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’ shows that the frequency and intensity of climate change-induced shocks are growing all over the world (IPCC, 2014). Intensified extremes climatic events with higher frequency would add further stress on human health, food security (through agriculture and livestock production), water resources etc, where the rural poor are extremely prone and adversely impacted (IPCC, 2014; IPCC, 2001). Different researcher defines resilience as “the individuals, social groups or social-ecological systems capacity to absorb disturbances (climate change impacts) without alteration of the basic structure and ways of functioning and capable to learn, adopt the change and organized themselves” (Berkes et al., 2003; Folke 2006). Resilience has recently emerged as a key concept in describing a household’s ability to act on weather shocks and adversity. Enhancing resilience while reducing exposure and vulnerability of farming community towards climate change impacts was utmost important to withstands with this scenario. Investigating the farmers’ resilience to the aforementioned climate effects in the Murrah buffalo-based livestock production system may offer insights in to the mechanisms that facilitate or restrict the system’s capacity for adaptation and trade-offs among services (Turner et al., 2014). 
The study was conducted in purposively selected Haryana state, India, as we need to analyze relationship of socioeconomic variable with resilience capacity of Murrah buffalo- based livestock production system in their breeding tract in the year 2019-2021. A total of 32 villages and n=320 farmer who is rearing Murrah buffaloes since last 10 years and has a minimum herd size of 4 were selected as respondents. Personal interview method, observation method and suitable tool (s) of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) like focused group discussion, etc. was followed with the help of pre-tested structured interview-schedule to collect the primary data. All socioeconomic variables were categorized in to 05 major capitals i.e., human, social, physical, natural and financial capital (Fig 1). The respondents were contacted at their door-steps at home or farm. The collected primary data from the farming community were tabulated and statistically (mean, standard deviation, cumulative square root frequency methods, regression) analyzed in the dairy extension division, NDRI, Karnal. Whereas, climate resilience index was developed with the dimensions maintained in Annexure I. Finally, weighted index calculation method was used to calculate resilience index of MBLPS farmers.

Fig 1: Socio economic attributes of respondents.


Annexure 1: Resilience capacities, major components and sub-components.

An overview of socio-economic profile of the Murrah buffaloes rearers
Human capital
Numbers of variables under human capital were depicted in Table 1. Moreover, the data clearly described that the Murrah buffalo rearers were quite mature with regard to farm experience, well-educated and average years of schooling for the family of Murrah buffalo rearers were 10.15 which comes under medium level of literacy level and occupied by 46.87 per cent of the Murrah buffalo farmers.

Table 1: Human capital possessed by the respondents.

Literacy rate in Haryana is 75.55 per cent ( dchb haryana.html) and the people of Haryana gradually giving much importance to formal education. This was the reason for medium to higher family education status of the respondents.
Social capital
An attempt was made to measure the involvement of the respondents in formal and informal social organizations (Gram Panchayat, Co-operative Society, Rural Youth Club, Self Help Group, Aanganwadi etc) as members or as office bearers through their social participation. Table 2 clearly states that majority (85.32%) of the respondents were either member or office bearer in any formal or informal social organization with average community cohesiveness among the farmer was 4.87, whereas, all respondents were having farmer to farmer extension and extension contact for agriculture and livestock farming and out of which only 21.25 percent of the farmers were having extension contact for getting information related to climate change. Generally, rural farmers having a tendency to sit in chaupal and discuss the various issue of agriculture and livestock farming.

Table 2: Social capital possessed by the respondents.

It is observed that speedy and effective transfer of technology and dissemination of information is possible through regular extension contact with agriculture officer, VLDA, Veterinary doctor etc.
Physical capital
Respondents were categorized as marginal (0-1 ha), Small (1 to 2 ha), Semi medium (2 to 4 ha), Medium (4 to 10 ha) and Large (10 ha and above) (Haryana and Agriculture and Farmers welfare report). From Table 3, it can be clearly understood that the average operational land holding of the respondents were 2.4 ha i.e., majority of the farmers (28.75 and 32.5%) were falls under the small to semi medium holdings of land with average percentage of extent of irrigation was 80.96 per cent and the major source of irrigation was extensive system of canals, tube wells and pump. Herd profile refers to the average herd size and herd composition of the respondents, who owned animals. The herd was composed of Murrah and graded Murrah buffalo, indigenous cattle, cross bred cattle and goat.

Table 3: Physical capital possessed by the respondents.

Technology or practices which was used in Murrah buffalo-based livestock production system to cope up with changing climatic scenario are known as climate resilience livestock practices. From the Table 3, it can be seen that farmers of the study area followed the practices such as all-weather shade for livestock, microenvironment alteration by foggers, sprinkler etc., follow of vaccination and deworming schedule, alteration in feeding material and time of feeding as per season and pond availability. These practices supposed to be enhanced resilience capacities of farmers by maintaining animal productivity in heat or cold stress.
Since, water is very crucial for sustaining life of all (Livestock, human being, plants etc). Therefore, availability of water for household triggers towards resiliency of a systems. Majorly 97.50 percent of the farmers were having availability of drinking water at their home premises either via tap point or hand pump. Majority of farmers were followed the wheat-rice cultivation primarily followed by diversified farming in form of vegetables crops, horticulture crop whereas due to very less irrigation facility, Siwani block farmers’s grow only those crops which required very less water like bajra (Pennisetum glaucum), pulses etc.
Natural capital
It refers to the access to information on different parameters of climate, especially information on cold waves and heat waves days, heavy rains etc. This information can help the farmers in better management of risk and in creating favorable condition for timely adoption of different management practices to cope up with the climate change. The result is portrayed in Table 4 and depicted that maximum percentage of the farmers (71.56%) seeking information regarding climate change, 64.37 per cent of the farmers of  Haryana region experienced extreme climatic events like flood, drought, cold and heat waves, hailstorm etc.

Table 4: Natural capital possessed by the respondents.

Respondents of the study area observed mastitis, pneumonia, ketosis, hemorrhagic septicemia, reproductive disorders, heat stress etc. Consequently, in changing climatic condition occurrence of mastitis, repeat breeding was noticed.
Diversification is one of the important strategies to confer resilience at time of crises. Level of diversity of concerned system i.e., in present study number of crops and livestock species reared by the farmers indicated their capacities to transform their livelihood strategies at the time of crises. In terms of feeding pattern, farmers follow the regularity in feeding on fixed time and concentrate ration fed to livestock mostly before milking (half in the morning and the other half in the evening). Most of the selected respondents of the study areas having soil health cards of their field.
Table 5 depicted the soil quality indices of selected district. Variability in moisture, temperature and local atmospheric chemistry within the soil impacts the microbial activity to climate change.

Table 5: District wise soil quality indices in Haryana.

Financial capital
From Table 6, it can be understood that the average income of the households were more than 8.49 lakhs with that 46.87 per cent of the respondents comes under medium level of income categories. The result is clearly indicating that farmers look different source of income for livelihood maintenance.

Table 6: Financial capital possessed by the respondents.

Categorization of respondents in different resilient categories
All the components measured under resilience capacity (Annexure 1) were measured and analyzed to calculate climate resilience index. Selected Murrah buffalo farmers were categorized into 03 categories on the basis of mean±SD methods and findings clearly depicted in Table 7.

Table 7: Categorization of household based on their resilience index score.

Relationship of respondent’s socioeconomic variables with their resilience capacity
It was desirable to ascertain the contribution or variation explained by all antecedent characteristics (independent variables) towards resilience capacity of farmers against climate change. The data (Table 8) revealed that all the fifteen variables entered in the regression analysis accounted for 89.9 per cent of variation towards resilience capacity against impact caused by changing climate on livestock farmers.

Table 8: Multiple linear regression analysis of Murrah buffalo-based livestock production system with determinants of resilience index.

Farmers of Haryana region having better economic status contributing households to better adapt to climate change impacts. In agreement with this finding, Asmamaw et al., (2019); Frankenberger et al., (2013), stated that diversified livelihood sources, better communication and financial institutions were contributing to enhance resilience capacity towards adverse effects of climate change. Variables such as more diversified social, financial and natural capital or assets by households reduces their vulnerability, at the same time as enhancing their resilience capacities to cope up with changing climate.
In a social science research various phenomena such as resilience capacity, adoption of technology and their constraints etc, depends on socioeconomic status of the community. It influences the accessibility to the resources, livelihood pattern, food and nutritional security. Farmers of Haryana’s region having better economic status contributing households to better adapt to climate change impacts. Variables such as diversified livelihood sources, better communication and financial institutions were contributing to enhance coping mechanism towards adverse effects of climate change. Consequently, more diversified social, financial and natural capital or assets by households reduces their vulnerability, at the same time as enhancing their resilience capacities to cope up with changing climate.

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