Indian Journal of Animal Research

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Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 57 issue 11 (november 2023) : 1568-1570

Impact of Non-genetic Parameters Altering Milk Yield Performance in Zebu Cows

M. Mohan1,*, D.N. Das2, K.P. Ramesha2
1ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, Haryana, India.
2ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Southern Regional Station, Bengaluru-560 030, Karnataka, India.
Cite article:- Mohan M., Das D.N., Ramesha K.P. (2023). Impact of Non-genetic Parameters Altering Milk Yield Performance in Zebu Cows . Indian Journal of Animal Research. 57(11): 1568-1570. doi: 10.18805/IJAR.B-4749.
Background: Animal phenotype performance depends on both genetic and non-genetic factors, but mostly the genetic part analysed leaving non genetic parameters unnoticed. The aim of the study is to understand impact of non-genetic factors governing milk yield performance in Deoni cows. 

Methods: A total of 821 lactation records from 340 lactating cows (2002-2017) along with their age at first calving, parity, season of calving were collected. These data were standardized and analysed to find significant differences using Duncan’s multiple range Test. 

Result: Deoni cows showed significant increase (P<0.05) in both lactation milk yield and lactation length with increase in parity. Season of calving had significant affects (P<0.05) on lactation milk yield but not in lactation length. Increase in age at first calving revealed there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in both lactation milk yield and lactation length.
Deoni is an important indigenous dual-purpose cattle breed of Southern and western India. These animals received its name form place of their origin i.e “Deoni” taluk of lathur district in Maharashtra. It is also known as Surti, Dongarpati. By earlier studies Deoni is found to be a cross of Gir, Dangi and some local cattle (Joshi and Philips., 1953). Based on its coat colour a) Wannera: white coat with black colourization in face, b) Balankya: completely white coat with black spots in lower parts and c) Shevera: white coat with irregular black spots (Singh et al., 2002).

Variation in milk yield were depends on animals genotypic value and environment deviation. Majority of change in animal’s performance was governed by non-genetic factors. Thus, to estimate genetic merit of an animal it is crucial to understand the non-genetic factors affecting production traits and the effective ways to minimize environmental deviation (Nagpal and Acharya,1971; Dhumal et al., 1993; Gandhi et al., 1995; Kumar et al., 2003 and Dhaware et al., 2008). Hence in this study to know about the effect of non-genetic factors viz., parity, age at first calving and  season of calving affecting lactation milk yield and its corresponding lactation length in Deoni cows were taken into account.
Data source
 
A total of 821 lactation records on 340 Deoni cattle maintained at Livestock Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Southern Regional station, Bengaluru pertaining to the period between 2002 to 2017 (15 years) were used for the present study.
 
Data normalization
 
The milk performance traits like total lactation milk yield and its corresponding lactation length were studied. Data for milk yield traits were classified on basis of parity into six group 1st to 5th parity as one distinct group and greater than 5th parity were pooled into a single group. Based on Season of calving data were classified into three groups of animals calved during rainy (July to October), summer (March to June) and winter season (November to February). Based on age at first calving, data were classified into three groups as animals calved within 40 months, between 40-50 months and exceeding 50 months. Animals having incomplete records due to abortion and still birth were excluded from the study. The data were standardized by taking the records of the performances within the range of two standard deviation from the mean value.

Least squares analysis technique (Harvey, 1966) was used for non-orthogonal data to find the effect of parity, season of calving and age at first calving on lactation milk yield (LMY) and lactation length (LL) of the cattle as per the following formula.
 
 Yij = μ + Fi + eij
 
Where,
Yij = Performance record (LMY and LL) of the jth cow under ith subclass of the non-genetic factor.
μ = Overall population mean.
F= ith subclass of the non-genetic factor.
i = 1, 2, 3, 4,5 and >5 for Parity.
i = 1, 2 and 3 for season of calving.
i = 1, 2 and 3 for age at first calving).
eij = Random error which is normally independently distributed.
 
Pairwise comparison of the least squares means was analysed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT), as modified by Kramer (1957) and its significance were estimated by one-way ANOVA using SPSS 16.0 software.
Under present study analysis of 821 lactation records collected from 340 lactating cows revealed that least squares mean lactation milk yield of 870.70±42.46 kg in a lactation length of 192.5±8.54 days.

Further, it was observed that there was an increase in lactation milk yield which started from fourth lactation and reached highest in greater than fifth lactation with a yield of 1084.61±58.62 kg in a lactation length of 230±9.3 days (Table 1). It was also observed that animals in first lactation exhibited lowest milk yield of 662.05±25.6 kg in a period of 174±10.3 days.

Table 1: Least squares Mean±S.E of lactation milk yield and lactation length based on non-genetic factors.



Das et al., (2011) and Basak and Das (2018) reported lower lactation milk yield and lactation length of 779.27±18.31 kg in 186.61±3.02 days and 819.98±16.50 kg in 189.6±5.76 days respectively in Deoni cows than the present study. Bhutkar et al., (2014) reported lower least squares mean lactation milk yield of 358.31±27.18 kg in Deoni cattle than the present study. Similarly, Chakravarthy et al., (2002) also reported lower lactation milk yield 238.86±76 kg in 149.43±33.52 days of lactation. Records of higher lactation milk yield and lactation length in Deoni cattle were reported by Deshpande and Singh (1977) as 942.7±16.6 kg and 293.3±2.9 days respectively. Based on ANOVA, it was revealed that with an increase in lactation number, there was a significant (P value<0.01) increase in lactation milk yield and lactation length (Table 3). In Ongole breed, similar kind of results was reported by (Kumar et al., 2003) in which significant enhancement in lactation milk yield was observed after third parity. In the same study, increase in parity showed non-significant effect on lactation length. Reports of Dhumal et al., (1993) exhibited that parity has no significant effect on lactation milk yield and lactation length of Deoni cattle. Although the exact mechanism underlying the increased lactation milk yield and lactation length in response to lactation number has yet to be discovered, some researchers believe it is due to an increase in mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and decrease of MEC apoptosis which causes increased cell activity in  mammary glands  (Ahmed et al., 2007 and McNamara et al., 2008).  

Season of calving showed significant effect on lactation milk yield but not on lactation length (Table 3). Animals calved during winter showed higher level of milk production in comparison with animals calved during summer and rainy seasons (Table 1). Similar kind of results was reported in Ongole cattle (Kumar et al., 2003) and Khillar cattle (Dhaware et al., 2008) for lactation milk yield. Dhumal et al., (1993) found that season of calving had non-significant effect on lactation milk yield and lactation length in Deoni cattle. Effect of season of calving on lactation milk yield could be due to availability of sufficient good quality fodder resources.

Animals were grouped based on age at first calving with its corresponding lactation milk yield and lactation length were estimated. Results revealed that animals calved before 40 months showed higher lactation milk yield and lactation length than to animals calved between 41 and 50 months and higher than 51 months (Table 2). ANOVA revealed that highly significant change in lactation milk yield and lactation length between age groups (Table 3). Similar result was observed by Basak (2013) in which age at first calving significantly affected lactation milk yield.

Table 2: Least squares Mean±S.E of lactation milk yield and lactation length based on effect of age at first calving and sire effect.



Table 3: Mean sum of squares of lactation milk yield and lactation length under various non-genetic effect.

Indigenous cattle’s lactation yield is an important parameter influence decision for its longevity or disposal. Lactation milk yield and lactation length in Deoni cows were significantly affected by all factors considered in the study viz., parity, season of calving and age at first calving whereas season of calving didn’t affect lactation length significantly.
We are thankful to Director, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal, Head of Station, ICAR-NDRI-SRS, Bengaluru and In-Charge of Livestock Research Centre, for providing data and the necessary facilities to carry out the study.

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