Clinical and Morpho-Molecular epidemiology of bovine theileriosis in Kashmir, India

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-3512    | Article Id: B-3512 | Page : 375-381
Citation :- Clinical and Morpho-Molecular epidemiology of bovine theileriosis in Kashmir, India.Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2019.(53):375-381
U. Farooq, N.A. Tufani, H.U. Malik and M.S. Mir tufanivet@gmail.com
Address : Clinical Veterinary Medicine Ethics and Jurisprudence, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Kashmir, Srinagar-190 006, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Submitted Date : 7-10-2017
Accepted Date : 21-02-2018

Abstract

Total 1683 cattle were screened for Theileria infections for one calendar year. The overall incidence was 4.34%. It was highest in summer (7.57%), followed by autumn (3.51%). Cattle above 2 years of age (6.19%) particularly Holstein Friesian Cross (5.81%), followed by Jersey Cross (2.77%) were highly infected. Female (4.49%) were mostly affected as compared to male (3.14%). Affected animals showed persistent high fever, tachycardia, tachypnea and reduced ruminal motility. Other important clinical signs were emaciation, swelling of pre-scapular lymph nodes, inappetence, pale mucous membranes or congested mucous membranes, occulo-nasal discharge, corneal opacity, presence of ticks, salivation, coughing and decreased milk production. The diagnostic efficacy of PCR was highest (100%, 73/73), followed by peripheral blood smears examination (93.15%, 68/73) and lymph node biopsy (49.31%, 36/73). There is a consistent increase in the incidence of bovine theileriosis which may be due climate change and import of carrier animals from the neighbouring states. 

Keywords

Bovine Incidence Molecular diagnosis PCR Signs Theileriosis.

References

  1. Alkhaledi, M.J.A. (2008). Epidemiological study of Theileriosis, Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis in cattle of Al Qadisiyaprovince. M.Sc. Thesis., College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, pp. 30-68. 
  2. Allsopp, B.A., Baylis, H.A., Allsopp, M.T.E., Cavalier-Smith, T., Bishop, R.P., Carrington, D.M., Sohanpal, B. and Spooner, P. (1993). Discrimination between six species of Theileria using oligonucleotide probes which detect small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences. Parasitology, 107: 157-165.
  3. Ananda, K.J., D’Souza, P.E. and Puttalakshmamma, G.C. (2009). Prevalence of Haemoprotozoan diseases in crossbred cattle in Bangalore north. Veterinary World, 2(1): 15-16.
  4. Anandan, R., Lalitha John, M., Ganesamurthy, M. and Lalitha, C.M. (1989). Paper presented in the National Seminar at Department of Animal Disease Investigation and Control, Madras Veterinary College, Madras from 20.9.89 to 21.9.89.
  5. Ariyaratne, M.E.S.A. De S., Gothami, W.S. and Rajapakse, R.V.P.J. (2014). Application of PCR technique on conforming Theileria infection in cattle and buffaloes with determining the relationship between animal’s PCV and WBC count with infection. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publcation, 4(7): 1-4. 
  6. Barnett, S.F. and Bailey, K.P. (1955). East African Veterinary Research Organisation. Annual Report, Nairobi, 1952-1955: 50.
  7. Brown, C.G.D. (1990). Control of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection) of cattle. Parassitologia, 32: 23-31.
  8. D’Oliveira, C., Vander Weide, M., Habela, M.A., Jacquiet, P. and Jongejan, F. (1995). Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of carrier cattle by PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 33: 2665-2669.
  9. Darghouth, M.A., Sassi, L., Gharbi, M., Soudani, M.C., Karoui, M. and Krichi, A. (2004). Detection of natural infections with Theileria annulata on calves at first theileriosis season: comparison of the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) and blood smears. Archieves De I’Institut Pasteur Tunis, 8: 41-45.
  10. de Castro, J.J. (1997). Sustainable tick and tick-borne disease control in livestock improvement in developing countries. Veterinary Parasitology, 71: 77-97.
  11. Flach, E.J., Ouhelli, H., Waddington, D., Oudich, M. and Spooner, R.L. (1995). Factors influencing the transmission and incidence of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection of cattle) in Morocco. Veterinary Parasitology, 59: 177-188.
  12. Friedhoff, K. and Bose, R. (1994). Recent developments in diagnostics of some tick-borne diseases. Use of applicable biotechnological methods for diagnosing haemoparasites. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy: Proceedings of the expert consultation, Merida, Mexico, pp. 46-57.
  13. Hoffman, G., Horchner, F., Schein, E. and Gerber, H.C. (1971). Seasonal occurrence of ticks and piroplasma in domestic animals in Asiatic provinces of Turkey. Berliner and Munchener tieraztliche Wochenschrift, 84(3): 152-156.
  14. Khaminsou, N., Kritpetcharat, O., Daduang, J. and Kritpetcharat, P. (2007). A survey of malarial infection in endemic areas of Savannakhet province, Lao PDR and comparative diagnostic efficiencies of Giemsa staining, Acridine Orange staining and semi-nested multiplex PCR. Parasitology International, 57: 143-149.
  15. Kocan, K., de La Fuente, J., Blouin, E.F., Coetzee, J.F. and Ewing, S.A. (2010). The natural history of Anaplasma marginale. Veterinary Parasitology, 167: 95-107.
  16. Kohli, S., Atheya, U.K. and Thapliyal, A. (2014). Prevalence of theileriosis in cross-bred cattle: its detection through blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India. Veterinary World, 7(3):168-171.
  17. Moorhouse, P.D.S., Musisi, F.L., Mwase, E.T. and Snacken, M. (2001). The epidemiology of bovine theileriosis in Zambia: results of a longitudinal study in Southern Province. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics.
  18. Morzaria, S.P., Musoke, A.J. and Latif, A.A. (1988). Recognition of Theileria parva antigens by field sera from Rusinga, Kanya. Kenya Veterinary, 12(2): 88-90.
  19. Muhammad, G., Saqib, M., Athar, M., Khan, M.Z. and Asi, M.N. (1999). Clinico-epidemiological and therapeutic aspects of bovine theileriosis. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 19(2): 64-71.
  20. Muraleedharan, K., Ziauddin, K.S., Hussain, P.M., Seshadri, S.J., Mallikarjun, G.B. and Puttabyatappa, B. (1994). Observations on theilerial infection of cattle in project area of Mysore cooperative milk producers union, Karnataka State. Cheiron, 23(3): 130-139.
  21. Nair, A.S., Ravindran, R., Lakshmanan, B., Kumar, S.S., Tresamol, P.V., Saseendranath, M., Senthilvel, K., Rao, J.R., Tewari, A.K. and Ghosh, S. (2011). Haemoprotozoa of cattle in Northern Kerala, India. Tropical Biomedicine, 28(1): 68-75.
  22. Noaman, V. (2014). Comparison of molecular and microscopic technique for detection of Theileria spp.in carrier cattle. Journal of Parasitic Disease, 38(1): 64-67.
  23. Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Hinchcliff, K.W. and Constable, P.D. (2007). Veterinary medicine: A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats, 10th ed., Elsevier, Philadelphia. 
  24. Rather, S.A., Tak, H. and Kakru, D.K. (2015). Seroprevalence of Haemoprotozoan diseases in ruminants of Kashmir valley. Agricultural Advances, 4(11): 122-128.
  25. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F. and Maniatis, T. (1989). Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press, New York.
  26. Shaw, A.A. (1989). Investigation of some infections in the exotic, pure and cross bred cattle of Kashmir Valley. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 10(1): 33-8.
  27. Tuli, A., Singla, L.D., Sharma, A., Bal, M.S., Filia, G. and Kaur, P. (2015). Molecular epidemiology, risk factors and hematochemical alterations induced by Theileria annulata in bovines of Punjab (India). Acta Parasitologica, 60(3): 378-390.
  28. Vahora, S.P., Patel, J.V., Patel, B.B., Patel, S.B. and Umale, R.H. (2012). Seasonal incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo in Kaira and Anand districts of Gujarat, India. Veterinary World, 5(4): 223-225.
  29. Zahid, I.A., Latif, M. and Baloch, K.B. (2005). Incidence and treatment of theileriasis and babesiasis. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 25(3): 137-139. 

Global Footprints