Ultrasonographic examination of kidneys and urinary bladder of normal adult Spiti horses and Himalayan Hill mules of India

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-3498    | Article Id: B-3498 | Page : 341-345
Citation :- Ultrasonographic examination of kidneys and urinary bladder of normal adult Spiti horses and Himalayan Hill mules of India.Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2019.(53):341-345
Uiase Bin Farooq, Adarsh Kumar, Shabir Ahmad and Rajni Chaudhary farooquiase@gmail.com
Address : Department of Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 061, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Submitted Date : 23-09-2017
Accepted Date : 22-12-2017

Abstract

The objective of this study was to develop baseline topographical data of landmarks for locating kidneys and urinary bladder and to generate sonographic calliper measurements along with dynamic parameters of these organs. Ultrasonography was performed on 50 native adult (Spiti horses and Himalayan hill mules) healthy unsedated equines of either sex. The thickness, character and echo-architecture of these organs were recorded. The right kidney was found from 15th (±1) intercostal space (ICS) extending upto first lumbar vertebra, both in horses as well as in mules. The height of right kidney varied from 112.7 to 118.3 mm (Mean± SE= 115.6±1.01 mm) and its thickness varied from 58.4 to 71.2 mm (Mean± SE= 64.3±2.37 mm). While in mules height of right kidney varied from 90.7 to 109.2 mm (Mean± SE= of 101.1±3.14 mm) and its thickness varied from 47.3 to 56.8 mm (Mean± SE= 52.3±1.57 mm). The left kidney in horses was found between 16th ICS to 2nd lumbar vertebra, while in mules it was found from 16th ICS to 3rd lumbar vertebra. The height of left kidney varied from 87 to 107.8 mm (Mean± SE= 99.0±3.67 mm) and its thickness varied from 49.5 to 53.8 mm (Mean± SE= 51.8±0.72 mm). In mules the height of left kidney varied from 85.5 to 111.4 mm (Mean± SE= 95.3±2.36 mm) and its thickness varied from 43.4 to 55.7 mm (Mean± SE= 50.6±2.53 mm). During transrectal ultrasonography urinary bladder was observed as an oval to round structure in the caudal ventral abdomen, the wall thickness of urinary bladder varied from 2.7 to 2.8 mm (Mean± SE= 2.74±0.02 mm), 2.4 to 2.7 mm (Mean± SE= 2.62±0.05 mm) in horses and mules respectively. Hence detailed ultrasonographic examination of these organs helped us to compile baseline data, which will be helpful in future in management of the affections of these organs.

Keywords

Horses Kidneys Mules Ultrasonography Urinary bladder.

References

  1. Barton MH (2011). Understanding abdominal ultrasonography in horses: which way is up. Compend. Contin. Educ. Pract. Vet., 33:.E1-E7.
  2. Diaz OS, Smith G, Reef VB. (1995). Ultrasonographic appearance of the lower urinary tract in fifteen normal horses. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound 48 : 560-564
  3. Epstein K, Short D, Parente E, Reef V, Southwood L (2008). Gastrointestinal ultrasonography in normal adult ponies. Vet. Radiol and Ultrasound 49: 282-286.
  4. Freeman S (2002). Ultrasonography of the equine abdomen techniques and normal findings. J. British. Vet. Assoc., 24(4): 204-211.
  5. Hoffman KL, Wood AKW, McCarthy PH (1995). Sonographic-anatomic correlation and imaging protocol for the kidneys of horses. American J. Vet. Res., 56: 1403-1412.
  6. Kiper ML, Traub-Dargatz JL, Wrigley RH (1990). Renal ultrasonography in horses. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 12: 993-1000.
  7. Reef VB (1991). The use of diagnostic ultrasound in the horse. Ultrasound Quarterly 9: 1-34
  8. Reef VB (1998). Adult abdominal ultrasonography: Equine Diagnostic Ultrasound. Philadelphia, USA, WB Saunders Co. PP: 273-357
  9. Schmidt AR (1989). Transrectal ultrasonography of the caudal portion of the abdominal and pelvic cavities in horses. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 194: 365-371

Global Footprints