Indian Journal of Animal Research

  • Chief EditorK.M.L. Pathak

  • Print ISSN 0367-6722

  • Online ISSN 0976-0555

  • NAAS Rating 6.50

  • SJR 0.263

  • Impact Factor 0.5 (2023)

Frequency :
Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)
Indexing Services :
Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS Preview, ISI Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Scopus, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Indian Journal of Animal Research, volume 53 issue 2 (february 2019) : 161-167

Hematological responses of common carp Cyprinus carpio administered with Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extraction

Yadwinder Kaur, Asha Dhawan, Shanthanagouda Admane Holeyappa, Naveenkumar Bilekallu Thammegowda
1College of Fisheries, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141 004, Punjab, India.
Cite article:- Kaur Yadwinder, Dhawan Asha, Holeyappa Admane Shanthanagouda, Thammegowda Bilekallu Naveenkumar (2018). Hematological responses of common carp Cyprinus carpio administered with Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extraction. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 53(2): 161-167. doi: 10.18805/ijar.B-3494.
The study investigated the effect of Neem Leaf Extract (NLE)—a herbal product on hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Common carp fry were fed on diets having different levels of NLE [no NLE (D1), 0.25(D2), 0.5(D3), 1.0(D4), 1.5(D5), 2.0(D6) g/kg in basal diet containing rice bran and mustard] for 180 days in outdoor tanks. The results revealed an increase in TEC, TLC and PCV in groups D2-D6 compared to control (P<0.05), but increased PCV was observed only in D2, D3 and D4 groups. Further, increasing trend for Hb content was observed from D2-D6 irrespective of NLE levels. The MCV values decreased with increase in levels of NLE in contrast to MCHC, whereas MCH considerably varied among the treatments. Significantly increased total protein and globulin was also observed while albumin to globulin ratio did not show any response in any of the treatments. Collectively, these observations support the hypothesis that the response of hematological parameters to NLE treatment is regulated via both positive and negative feedback mechanisms, with differential modulations based on the NLE levels. The results imply that NLE can boost the immune system via hematological parameters by increasing TEC, TLC, PCV, Hb at certain levels.
  1. AOAC. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 16th ed., Arlington, Virginia, USA Akinwande, A.A., Moody, F.O., Sogbesan, O.A., Ugwumba, A.A.A., Ovie, S.O. (2005). Haematological response of Heterobranchus longifilis fed varying dietary proteins levels. In: 19thAnnual Conference of the Fisheries Society of Nigeria. pp. 715-718.
  2. Biswas, J.K., Sarkar, D., Chakraborty, P., Bhakta, J.N., Jana, B.B. (2006). Density dependent ambient ammonium as the key factor for optimization of stocking density of common carp in small holding tanks, Aquaculture, 261:952–59.
  3. Bostock, J., McAndrew, B., Richards, R., Jauncey, K., Telfer, T., Lorenzen, K., Little, D.,et al. (2010). Aquaculture: global status and trends. Philosophical Transanctions Royal Society section B, 365:2897–2912.
  4. Drastichova, J., Svobodova Z., Luskova V., Machova, J. (2004). Effect of cadmium on hematological indices off common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 72:725-732.
  5. Dumas, B.T., Watson, W.A., Biggs, H.G. (1971). Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromcresol green. Clinical Chemistry Acta, 258: 87-96. 
  6. Gültepe, N., Bilen, S., Yýlmaz, S., Güroy, D., Aydin, S. (2014). Effects of herbs and spice on health status of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) challenged with Streptococcus iniae. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 83: 125–131.
  7. Haney, D.C., Hursh, D.A., Mix, M.C., Winton, J.R. (1992). Physiological and hematological changes in chum salmon artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 4:48-57.
  8. Harikrishnan, R., Rani, M.N., Balasundaram, C. (2003). Hematological and biochemical parameters in common carp, yprinus carpio, following herbal treatment for Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Aquaculture, 221:41-50.
  9. Harikrishnan, R., Balasundaram, C., Kim, M.C., Han, Y.J., Heo, M.S. (2009). Innate immune response and disease resistance in Carassius auratus by triherbal solvent extracts. Fish and Shellfish Immunology,27: 508-515.
  10. Iwama, G.K., Greer, G.L., Larkin, P.A. (1976). Changes in some hematological characteristics of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to acute exposure of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) at different exercise levels. Journal of Fisheries Research Board Canada, 33:285-289.
  11. Ismael, M.I, Soliman W.S, Amnah,A.H, Rayes. (2011). Trials for neem leaf extract treatment against MAS in Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus. Academia arena ,3: 36-40
  12. Katiha, P.K., Jena, J.K., Pillai, N.G.K., Chakraborty, C., Dey, M.M. (2005). Inland aquaculture in India: past trend, present status and future prospects. Aquaculture Economics Management, 9:237-264.
  13. Kumar, S., Raman, R.P., Pandey, P.K., Mohanty, S., Kumar, A., Kumar, K. (2013). Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-    specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 34:564-573.
  14. Ljubojevic, D., Radosavljevic, V., Puvaca, N., Balos, M.Z., Dordevic, V., Jovanovic, R., Cirkovic, M. (2015). Interactive effects of dietary protein level and oil source on proximate composition and fatty acid composition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 37:44–50.
  15. Martins, M.L., Moraes F.R., Miyazaki D.M., Brum C.D., Onaka E.M., Fenerick J.J., Bozzo F.R. (2002). Alternative treatment for    Anacanthorus penilabiatus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) infection in cultivated pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes: Characidae) in Brazil and its haematological effects. Parasite, 9:175-180.
  16. Mona, S.N., Hossain, M.M.M., Rahman, M.Z., Alam, M.E., Rahman, M.H., Yeasmin, S.M., Zabin, S., Khatun A. (2015). Protection of bacterial infection through dietary administration of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf in Chinese carp after parasitic infestation. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 2:31-37.
  17. Obaroh, I.O., Nzeh, G.C. (2013). Antifertility effect of some plant leaf extracts on the prolific breeding of Oreochromis Niloticus. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies,2:87-94. 
  18. Rico, A., Phu, T.M., Satapornvanit, K., Min, J., Shahabuddin, A.M., Henriksson, P.J.G.,et al. (2013). Use of veterinary medicines, feed additives and probiotics in four major internationally traded aquaculture species farmed in Asia. Aquaculture, 412–413: 231-243.
  19. Sahli., T. (1962). Text book of Clinical Pathology. (Ed: Scward, Eimiller). Williams and Willams and Co., Baltimore. 35 pp. 
  20. Sahu, S., Das, B.K., Pradhan, J., Mohapatra, B.C., Mishra, B.K., Sarangi, N. (2007). Effect of Magnifera indica kernel as a feed additive on immunity and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 23:109-118.
  21. Satheeshkumar, P., Ananthan, G., Senthil, Kumar, D., Jagadeesan, L. (2011). Haematology and biochemical parameters of different feeding behaviour of teleost fishes from Vellar estuary, India. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 21:1-5.
  22. Shelby, R.A., Lim, C.E., Aksoy, M., Delaney, M.A. (2006). Effects of probiotic feed supplements on disease resistance and immune response of young Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 18:23-34.
  23. Syahidah, A., Saad, C.R., Daud, H.M., Abdelhadi, Y.M. (2015). Status and potential of herbal applications in aquaculture: A review. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 14:27-44.
  24. Talpur, A.D., Ikhwanuddin, M. (2013). Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 34:254-264.
  25. Uthayakumar, V., Senthilkumar, D., Jayakumar, R., Sreedevi, P.R., Satheeskumar, P., Ramasubramanian, V. (2014). Effect of Azadirachta indica leaf soluble fraction on immune response and disease resistance in Channa striatus against tropical freshwater fungal parasite Aphanomyces invadans (EUS). Global Veterinaria, 13:355-364.

Editorial Board

View all (0)