Ultrasonographic examination of liver and spleen of normal adult spiti horses and Himalayan Hill mules of India

DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-3409    | Article Id: B-3409 | Page : 1573-1577
Citation :- Ultrasonographic examination of liver and spleen of normal adult spiti horses and Himalayan Hill mules of India.Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2018.(52):1573-1577
Uiase Bin Farooq, Adarsh kumar and Rajni Chaudhary farooquiase@gmail.com
Address : Department of Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 061, Himachal Pradesh, India
Submitted Date : 21-03-2017
Accepted Date : 29-06-2017


The main objective of this study was to develop baseline topographical data of landmarks for locating liver and spleen and to generate sonographic calliper measurements along with dynamic parameters of these organs. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed on 50 native adult (Spiti horses and Himalayan hill mules) healthy unsedated equines of either sex. The thickness, character and echo-architecture of liver and spleen were recorded. In horses, the right lobe of liver was found from 8th to 15th intercostal space (ICS) and left lobe from 6th to 11th (±1) ICS, while in mules the right liver lobe was found between 6th to 15th (±1) ICS and left lobe between 6th to 9th (±1) ICS. The liver was recognized by its branching vasculature and architecture was found relatively homogenous. In addition ventral edges were distinctly sharp. Spleen was found from 8th to 17th ICS both in horses as well as in mules. The splenic parenchyma was homogenously granular in appearance with few blood vessels and most echogenic organ in the abdominal cavity of equines. The only measurement that was reliably obtained was the central thickness or depth of the spleen, which varied from 41.4 to 68.4 mm (Mean± SE= 50.84±4.61 mm) in horses and 37.9 to 51.6 mm (Mean± SE = 42.76±2.34 mm) in mules. Therefore detailed ultrasonographic examination of liver and spleen helped us to compile baseline data, which will be helpful in management of the affections of liver and spleen in future.


Horses Liver Mules Spleen Ultrasonography.


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