Prediction of lameness based on the percent body weight distribution to individual limbs of Karan Fries cows

DOI: 10.5958/0976-0555.2015.00144.2    | Article Id: B-2559 | Page : 392-398
Citation :- Prediction of lameness based on the percent body weight distribution to individual limbs of Karan Fries cows.Indian Journal Of Animal Research.2015.(49):392-398
Man Singh*, S.S. Lathwal, Yajuvendra Singh, T.K. Mohanty, A.P.Ruhil and Navav Singh
Address : National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana - 132001.


The present study was carried out to predict various categories of lameness by using percent body weight distribution to all the four limbs of lactating Karan Fries crossbred cows. Load sensors were able to detect an abnormal distribution of body weight to individual limbs. Among the cows, 22.97% were afflicted with mild, 14.19% with moderate, 21.62% with lame, 6.75% with severe and rest with no lameness. Prediction of 5-point scale of lameness based on percent body weight distribution to all four limbs of cows through multi-nominal logistic regression could be done with an accuracy of 70.6, 47.1, 0.0, 50.0 and 0.0% into no lame, mild, moderate, lame and severe lame categories. Cox and Snell, Nagelkerke and McFadden pseudo R2 values for the present model in prediction of various categories of 5-point scale of lameness using percent body weight distribution to all four limbs was observed to be 32.0, 33.7 and 12.9% respectively while these values for 3-point scale were observed to be 46.0, 54.0 and 32.3%, respectively. The percent correct classification of no lame, mild and severe lame category in 3-point scale was observed to be 91.8, 0.0 and 73.8%, respectively. The overall percentage of correct classification rate of 3-point scale was much higher (73.6%) as compared to 5-point scale (45.9%).


KaranFries Lameness Load sensors Logistic regression Prediction.


  1. Booth C J, Warnick L D, Grohn Y T, Maizon D O, Guard C L and Janssen D. 2004. Effect of lameness on culling in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87: 4115–22.
  2. Chapinal N, de Passille A M, Rushen J and Tucke C B 2011. Measures of weight distribution and frequency of steps as indicators of restless behavior. Journal of Dairy Science 94(2): 800–03.
  3. Colborne G R. 2004. Gait analysis: technology looking for a place to happen? Veterinary Journal 168: 112–13.
  4. Enting H, Kooij D, Dijkhuizen A A, Huirne R B M and Hoordhuizen – Stassen E N. 1997. Economic losses due to clinical lameness in dairy cattle. Livestock Production Science 49: 259–67.
  5. Esselmont R J, Kossaibati M A. 1997. Culling in 50 dairy herds in England. Veterinary Record 140: 36–39.
  6. Flower F C and Weary D M. 2006. Effect of hoof pathogenesis on subjective assessments of dairy cow gait. Journal of Dairy Science 89: 139–46.
  7. Flower F C, Sanderson D J and Weary D M. 2005. Hoof pathologies influence kinematic measures of dairy cow gait. Journal of Dairy Science 88: 3166–73.
  8. Garbarino E J, Hernandez J A, Shearer J K, Risco C A and Thatcher W W 2004. Effect of lameness on ovarian activity in postpartum Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87: 4123–31.
  9. Hood D M, Wagner P, Taylor D D, Brumbaugh G W and Chaffin M K. 2001. Voluntary limb- load distribution in horse with acute and chronic laminitis. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62: 1393–1398.
  10. Keegan K G, Wilson D A, Wilson D J, Smith B, Gaughan E M, Pleasant R S, Lillich J D, Kramer J, Howard R D, Bacon- Miller C, Davis E G, May K A, Cheramie H S, Valentino W L and Van Harreveld P D. 1998. Evaluation of mild lameness in horses trotting on a treadmill by clinicians and interns or residents and correlation of their assessments with kinematic gait analysis. American Journal of Veterinary Research 59: 1370–77.
  11. Magee D R and Boyle R D 2002. Detecting lameness using ‘Resampling Condensation’ and ‘multi-stream cyclic hidden Markov models’. Image and Vision Computing 20: 581–94.
  12. Neveux S, Oostra J, de Passille A M and Rushen J. 2003. Validating on- farm tools for their ability to detect lameness in dairy cows. In proceedings of 37th International Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology, pp. 129, Abano Terme, Italy.
  13. Nordlund K V, Cook N B and Oetzel G R. 2004. Investigation strategies for laminitis problem herds. Journal of Dairy Science 87(E): E27- E35.
  14. O’Callaghan K A. 2002. Lameness and associated pain in cattle – challenging traditional perceptions. In Practice 24: 212–19.
  15. Pastell M, Takko H, Grohn H, Hautala M, Poikalinen V, Praks J, Veermae I, Kujala M and Ahokas J 2006. Assessing cows’ welfare: Weighing the cows in a milking robot. Biosystem Engineering 93: 81–87.
  16. Pastell M E and Kujala M. 2007. A probabilistic neural network model for lameness detection. Journal of Dairy Science 90: 2283–92.
  17. Pastell M, Hanninon L, de Passille A M and Rushen J. 2010. Measures of weight distribution of dairy cows to detect lameness and presence of hoof lesions. Journal of Dairy Science 93: 954–60.
  18. Rajkondawar P G, Tasch U, Lefcourt A M, Erez B, Dyer R M and Varner M A 2002. A system for identifying lameness in dairy cattle. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 18: 87–96.
  19. Rajkondawar P G, Liu M, Dyer R M, Neerchal N K, Tasch U, Lefcourt A M, Erez B and Varner M A 2006. Comparison of models to identify lame cows based on gait and lesion scores and limb movement variables. Journal of Dairy Science 89: 4267–4275.
  20. Rietmann T R, Stauffacher M, Bernasconi P, Auer J A and Weishaupt M A 2004. The association between heart rate, heart rate variability, endocrine and behavioural pain measures in horses suffering from laminitis. Journal of Veterinary Medicine 51: 218–25.
  21. Rushen J, Pombourcq E and Ripley B D. 2007. Validation of two measures of lameness in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 106: 173–77.
  22. Singh Y, Lathwal S S, Chakrabarty A K, Gupta A K, Mohanty T K, Raja T V, Dangi R L and Roy B K. 2011. Effect of lameness (hoof disorders) on productivity of Karan Fries crossbred cows. Animal Science Journal 82: 169–74.
  23. Singh M, Lathwal S S, SinghY, Kumar A, Gupta A K, Mohanty T K, Raja TV, Gupta R K, Sharma V, Chandra G and Kumar M. 2012. Association of lameness with per cent body weight distribution and shifting to individual limbs of static Karan Fries crossbred cows. Ind J Anim Sci. 82 (9): 16–25.
  24. Sprecher D J, Hostetler D E and Kaneene J B. 1997. A lameness scoring system that uses posture and gait to predict dairy cattle reproductive performance. Theriogenology 47: 1179–87.
  25. Whay H R, Main D C J, Green L E and Webster A J F. 2003. Assessment of the welfare of dairy cattle using animal-based measurements: direct observations and investigation of farm records. Veterinary Record 153: 197–202.
  26. Whitaker D A, Kelly J M and Smith S. 2000. Disposal and disease rates in 340 British dairy herds. Veterinary Record 146: 363–67.
  27. Winckler C and Willen S. 2001. The reliability and repeatability of a lameness scoring system for use as an indicator of welfare in dairy cattle. Acta agriculturæ Scandinavica Section A, Animal science 30(Suppl.): 103–07.

Global Footprints