Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika, volume 38 issue 1 (march 2023) : 29-34

An Automatic Monitoring and Control System inside the Greenhouse

P. Subhapriya1, K. Santhosh2,*
1Department of Chemistry, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam-638 401, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Department of Agriculture Engineering, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam-638 401, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Submitted18-08-2022|

  • Accepted23-01-2023|

  • First Online 16-03-2023|

  • doi 10.18805/BKAP579

Cite article:- Subhapriya P., Santhosh K. (2023). An Automatic Monitoring and Control System inside the Greenhouse . Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika. 38(1): 29-34. doi: 10.18805/BKAP579.
In this work, we have proposed a structure that can accumulate information related to nursery climate and yield status and control the framework naturally considering the assembled information. By deeply noticing occasional conditions, this study has the justification behind getting an association between sensor banners and reference assessments. Control programming will give data findings of the continuous show. Through long-time running and functional utilization, the framework has been demonstrated that it has numerous points of interest. To monitor the environment inside the greenhouse different parameters have been considered such as light, temperature, humidity, soil moisture, etc. using different sensors like DHT22 temperature and humidity Sensor, LDR, grove-moisture sensor, etc. which will be interfaced with a microcontroller. A shut circle framework will execute control activity to change temperature, mugginess, light power and soil dampness if any undesirable blunders (high/low) happen.
India is an agrarian economy. Agribusiness is the single greatest conveying area of the economy since it involves around 30% of the country’s GDP and uses around 60% of the workforce. Till now our agricultural systems are followed the conventional method whereas developed countries use the automated system to control their agrarian economy to grow more products than before using the same lands and weather. However moderate climate condition generally assists us with developing various plants at various seasons, but it doesn’t assist us with heightening harvests creation without blocking crops from normal annihilation. Moreover, droughts are associated with the late appearance or an early withdrawal of rainstorm rains due to irregular dry spells concurring with developed periods of various harvests in the northwestern and northern areas of India. One more disadvantage of environmental change is the failure to deliver a wide scope of things like products of the soil.

So we have considered something which will bring the course of action by introducing some controlled system that will control the temperature and feed the plants in the dry meeting to convey yields. Assuming that we can use a motorized system being developed cycle, we can deliver a wide scope of harvests in each season which will cleave down import cost furthermore work costs will diminish upkeep cost extensively as by controlling temperature we keep up the impeccable environment for plants. Besides, the nursery design gives light access and when this light is consumed by things inside the nursery and swings to warmth imperativeness, it isn’t permitted to move away. The air temperature in the nursery will outperform the external temperature. If it gets excessively hot, all you have to do is open up a portion of the ventilation boards or simply open the entryway, contingent upon the outline and the temperature will drop Hossain and Hassan (1991) - Dinesh Kumar et al. (2013).

Nurseries can coordinate temperatures; temperature fluctuations can push plants and moderate the turn of events. The invulnerable covering on a nursery causes it to become extremely hot and soggy inside amid the sunshine. The moistness evaporates from the soil and the soddenness emitted by photosynthesizing plants consumes the atmosphere. When the air is extremely damp, it gets to be harder for plants to lose water by vanishing and with the dirt. This effectively proceeds everything from drying out on a hot bright day. Therefore, it is essential to have an air course to exhaust over-the-top clamminess and control air exchange. More or less we accept our undertaking will carry the change to our traditional horticulture. It is only a little drive of a gigantic impending achievement of our rural and logical area.

Similar work has been done in this area which involves a computer-based system or SMS-based and wireless systems which are much more complex and somewhat expensive. In this paper, we have proposed a structure that can accumulate the information related to nursery climate and yield status and control the nursery thus taking into account the assembled information to anticipate and circle back to conditions for magnificently controlled climatic conditions. By thickly noticing climatic conditions, this investigation has the justification behind making the connection between sensor banners and reference assessments, separating the turn of events, headway of yields and the normal factors to which they are uncovered. Also, control programming will give data acquirement and control, certified time graphical show, dates and time names the information and stores it for present or later use. Likewise, by reliably noticing different normal factors right away, an agriculturist has the limit to perceive how advancement conditions are fluctuating and react to those movements with a particular ultimate objective to extend viability Li et al. (2010) - Yang and Simbeye (2013) - Vidyasagar (2012) - Manashti et al. (2012) - Vu (2011) - Pawlowski et al., (2009) - Park et al. (2011).

Advantages and disadvantages of the greenhouse in the agriculture are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Advantages and disadvantages of the greenhouse in the agriculture [Hossain and Hassan (1991)].

Framework overview
The proposed framework is an implanted framework that will nearly screen and control the small-scale climatic parameters of a greenhouse on a usual premise. For the development of products or particular plant species which could enhance their creation over the entire yield development season and to fight with the challenges included in the framework by falling human negotiation to the best feasible degree. The framework contains temperature; humidity; light and moisture sensors; Arduino microcontroller easily and actuators (Relay module) (Fig 1).

Fig 1: Framework outline [Hossain and Hassan (1991)].

Right, when any of the previously mentioned climatic boundaries cross a security limit that must be kept up to get the yields, the sensors sense the change and the miniature regulator peruses this from the data at its information ports directly following being changed over to a high-level edge by the ADC. The miniature regulator then, at that point, plays out the expected activities by using moves until the wandered-out boundary has been returned to its optimal level. Since a miniature regulator is used as the core of the system, it puts forth the set-up insignificant attempt and convincing in light of everything. As the system in like manner uses an LCD show for continually disturbing the client about the condition inside the nursery, the entire set-up will be not difficult to utilize (Fig 2).

Fig 2: Framework flowchart [Dinesh Kumar, N., et al. (2013)].

A basic part of considering a control system is the control method that will be taken later. The clearest system is to use edge sensors that directly impact the invitation of contraptions. For case, the temperature inside a nursery can be impacted by controlling warmers, fans, or window openings once it outperforms the most outrageous admissible farthest point. The light power can be controlled using four edge levels. As the light power lessens one light might be turned on. With a further decrease in its power, a subsequent light would be controlled and whatnot; in like manner ensuring that the plants are not denied adequate sunshine separated inside the colder time of year season or a cloudy day.
Test result and analysis
Fundamental to successfully perceive the boundaries will be estimated by the regulator’s data acquisition point of interaction and how they are to be estimated. The results of different sensors are displayed underneath.
A. DHT11 temperature and humidity sensor
The sensor develops a connection between voltage and relative mugginess. It can work north of a 4-5.8 stock voltage range. At 5V inventory voltage and room temperature, the sensor yield voltage goes from 0.8 to 3.9V as the dampness changes from 0% to 100 per cent (no consolidating). The resulting voltage is changed over to temperature by a basic transformation factor (Fig 3,4 and Table 2,3).

Fig 3: DHT11 Temperature and moistness sensor Li et al. (2010).

Fig 4: Arduino yield for DHT11 temperature and moistness sensor [Yang and Simbeye (2013)].

Table 2: DHT11 Humidity sensor readings [Li et al. (2010)].

Table 3: Temperature sensor readings [Vidya Sagar (2012)].

The overall condition used to change yield voltage over to temperature is:
Sensor yield voltages are gotten by the recipe:
B. Controlling technique for temperature and moistness
Exhaust fans can move a significant volume of the hot plant outlet and get outside air in through the back vent. This is helpful which is as it should be. Full sun on a hot summer day can bring about temperatures inside the nursery to superheat. A vapor fan should have the ability to drag this overabundance of heat, or the temperatures will continue to rise.

Upward infrared warming stuff got together with soil interface warmth gives a restricted plant climate, which licenses plants to prosper regardless of the way that the incorporating air is at a lower than average temperature. Electric opposition sort warmers are utilized as space radiators or as a piece of an obliged air structure (Fig 5).

Fig 5: Transfer conditions for temperature and dampness [Vidyasagar (2012)].

C. Light sensor
The circuit used for sensing light in our system uses a 10 k&! fixed resistor which is tied to +5V. Consequently, the voltage esteem for this situation diminishes with expansion in light power (Fig 6, 7; Table 4).

Fig 6: Circuit graph of LDR Manashti et al. (2012).

Fig 7: Arduino result of LDR (faint light condition) [Vu (2011)].

Table 4: Light sensor readings [Vu, Q.M. (2011)].

D. Controlling strategy for light
Here we can see from Table 3, that the condition for the faint light circumstance is 0.7V-2.5V and comparing light force found from Arduino was around 187 lumen. Whenever light power is 500 lumen, it implies there is a presence of light. If the light power is beneath 500, our robotized framework recognizes it and turns ON the transfer module. The fake light will sparkle until dawn. If there is any existence of cloudy weather or rainy our automated system will work if the intensity of the light does not match with the set value (500 lumens).
E. Soil moisture sensor
The rudimentary thought behind utilizing soil dampness sensors to control water systems is straightforward: when plants use water, they take it up from the substrate, so the water content of the substrate diminishes. Soil water sensors recognize these progressions and can be utilized to open a water system valve when the substrate water content dips under a client’s decided set point. These outcomes in regular uses of limited quantities of water and the recurrence of the water system are changed consequently founded on the pace of substrate water exhaustion. This water system approach consequently replaces water that is utilized by plants or lost through dissipation and guarantees that plants are never presented to dry spell pressure. By flooding with how much water is required by the plants, water use and filtering can be diminished extraordinarily. This limits contamination without utilizing costly reusing water system frameworks or enormous lakes to catch spillover (Fig 8, 9; Table 5).

Fig 8: Forest dampness sensor Pawlowski et al. (2009).

Fig 9: Circuit for forest dampness sensor Park et al. (2011).

Table 5: Soil Moisture sensor readings [Park et al. (2011)].

F. Controlling strategy for soil dampness
Soil condition is vital for the plant. As far as we can see moisture of the soil is depending on the water level of the soil. So in this paper, we incline toward a dirt-dampness sensor to detect the state of soil whether it is dry, sticky, or watery. If the soil condition is dry it is automatically on the servo motor to on the water supply. When the soil becomes humid it will close the water supply automatically (Fig 10).

Fig 10: Finished venture with programmed control Park et al. (2011).

It is our incredible joy that we have effectively finished our undertaking which we longed for already. What’s more, we need to assemble a remote controller framework with more boundaries, for example, CO2, pH factor discovery and so on to be affirmed, we have tried our nursery project in better places whether or not it works with no mistake and we observed it worked effectively. We are really glad that we got positive criticism concerning our venture to be carried out in Botanical Garden. Moreover, the Botanical Garden authority showed their gigantic interest to help us in each perspective for our further examination, which is a monstrous chance for us to push ahead.

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  2. Hossain, A.E. and Hassan, M.A. (1991). Agriculture in Bangladesh. Agricultural land availability in Bangladesh. 978-984-33- 6141-7.

  3. Li, X.H., Cheng, X., Yan, K. and Gong, P. (2010). A monitoring system for vegetable greenhouses based on a wireless sensor network. Sensors. 10(10): 8963-8980.

  4. Manashti, M.J., Ghamarnia, H., Amirian, S. and Nezhad, R.M. (2012). Design GSM-SMS based system for old structured  greenhouses with monitoring and logging network sensors.  International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. 3: 1497-1507.

  5. Park, D.H., Kang, B.J., Cho, K.R., Shin, C.S., Cho, S.E., Park, J.W. and Yang, W.M. (2011). A study on greenhouse automatic control system based on wireless sensor network. Wireless Personal Communications. 56(1): 117- 130.

  6. Pawlowski, A., Guzman, J.L., Rodríguez, F., Berenguel, M., Sánchez, J. and Dormido, S. (2009). Simulation of greenhouse climate monitoring and control with wireless sensor network and event-based control. Sensors. 9(1): 232-252.

  7. Vidyasagar, B. (2012). Green house monitoring and automation using GSM. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 1-5.

  8. Vu, Q.M. (2011). Automated wireless greenhouse management system: A thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Electronics and Computer Systems (Doctoral dissertation, Massey University).

  9. Yang, S.F. and Simbeye, D.S. (2013). Computerized greenhouse environmental monitoring and control system based on lab windows/CVI. J. Comput. 8(2): 399-408.

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