Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika, volume 37 issue 1 (march 2022) : 50-55

Effect of Diversification on Smallholder Cocoa Farmers’ Livelihood: Evidence from Atwima Mponua District in the Ashanti Region, Ghana

Samuel Afotey Anang, Bernard Tarkoh, Nicholas Oppong Mensah, Tekuni Nakuja
1Department of Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness and Extension, University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani-Ghana.
  • Submitted29-09-2021|

  • Accepted28-04-2022|

  • First Online 16-05-2022|

  • doi 10.18805/BKAP379

Cite article:- Anang Afotey Samuel, Tarkoh Bernard, Mensah Oppong Nicholas, Nakuja Tekuni (2022). Effect of Diversification on Smallholder Cocoa Farmers’ Livelihood: Evidence from Atwima Mponua District in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika. 37(1): 50-55. doi: 10.18805/BKAP379.
Background: Cocoa is a very important economic crop to the world industries as many products are born out of it. Ghana makes significant contribution to the world cocoa production. Higher temperatures, erratic rainfall patterns, unpredictable and more severe droughts have threatened agricultural livelihoods especially for the smallholder cocoa farmers. In view of this, many smallholder farmers have diversified into several activities to enhance and improve livelihoods. The study therefore examines the effect of diversification on smallholder cocoa farmers’ livelihood in the Atwima Mponua District of Ghana. 
Methods: The study employed the cross-sectional survey approach of data gathering. A multistage sampling technique was used to sample one hundred and fifty (150) respondents for the study. The data collected was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Stata. 
Result: The findings of the study revealed that smallholder cocoa farmers have diversified into several economic activities and diversification strategies were influenced by household head, household size (4-6), income and business opportunity. 

  1. Adu-Appiah, A., Seini, W.A., Mensah-Bonsu, A. and Dzomeku, B.M. (2013). Internal marketing policy of cocoa in Ghana: Farmers’ incentives and challenges. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies. 4: 658-664.

  2. Antwi-Agyei, P., Fraser, E.D.G., Dougill, A.J., Stringer, L.C. and Simelton, E. (2012). Mapping the vulnerability of crop production to drought in Ghana using rainfall, yield and socioeconomic data. Appl. Geogr. 32: 324-334.

  3. Asravor, R.K. (2018). Livelihood diversification strategies to climate change among smallholder farmers in Northern Ghana. Journal of International Development. 30(8): 1318-1338.

  4. Assan, J.K. (2014). Livelihood diversification and sustainability of rural non-farm enterprises in Ghana. Journal of Management and Sustainability. 4(4): 1-14.

  5. Bunn, C., Fernandez-Kolb, P., Asare, R. and Lundy, M. (2019a). Climate Smart Cocoa in Ghana towards Climate Resilient Production at Scale. CCAFS Info Note. Available online at:

  6. Eneyew, A. (2012). Determinants of livelihood diversification in pastoral societies of Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Agriculture and Biodiversity Research. 1(3): 43-52. 

  7. Eneyew, A. and Bekele, W. (2012). Determinants of livelihood diversification strategies in Woliaita, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Research and Reviews. 1(5): 153-156.

  8. Friedman, R. (2015). Weathering Change: Climate Change Vulnerability and Women in Cocoa Farming (M.Phil. dissertation). University of Oxford, Oxford.

  9. Ghana Statistical Service. (2010). 2010 Population and Housing Census; Summary of Final Results. Ghana Statistical Service, May 2012, pp. 102.

  10. Ghana Statistical Service. (2014). Ghana Living Standards Survey Report of the Fifth Round. Accra, Ghana: Ghana Statistical Service.

  11. Gockowski, J., Afari-Sefa, V., Sarpong, D.B., Osei-Asare, Y.B. and Dziwornu, A.K. (2011). Increasing income of Ghanaian cocoa farmers: Is introduction of fine flavour cocoa a viable alternative. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture. 50: 175-200.

  12. Hainmueller, J., Hiscox, M. and Tampe, M. (2011). Sustainable Development for Cocoa Farmers in Ghana. MIT and Harvard University.

  13. Kolavalli, S. and Vigneri, M. (2011). Cocoa in Ghana: Shaping the Success of an Economy. Yes, Africa Can: Success Stories from a Dynamic Continent. The World Bank Publications.

  14. McKinley, J., Nalley, L.L., Asare, R.A., Dixon, B.L., Popp, J.S. and D’Haese, M. (2014). Managing risk in cocoa production: Assessing the potential of climate smart crop insurance in Ghana. International Journal of Agriculture, Trade and Development. 10: 53-79.

  15. Michler, J.D. and Josephson, A.L. (2017). To specialize or diversify: Agricultural diversity and poverty dynamics in Ethiopia. World Development. 89: 214-226.

  16. Nasa’i, D.H., Atala, T.K., Akpoko, J.G. and Kudi, T.M. (2010). Factors Influencing Livelihood Diversification among Rural Farmers in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Nature. 1(2): 161-165. 

  17. Ntiamoah, E.B., Li, D. and Kwamega, M. (2016). Impact of Government and Other Institution’s support on Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Agribusiness Sector in Ghana. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management. 6(5): 558-567.

  18. Okoffo, E.D., Denkyirah, E.K., Adu, D.T. and Fosu-Mensah, B.Y. (2016). A double-hurdle model estimation of cocoa farmers’ willingness to pay for crop insurance in Ghana. Springer Plus. 5(1): 873-892.

  19. Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications, Inc.   

  20. Tropical Commodity Coalition. (2012). Cocoa Barometer. Amsterdam.

  21. Tsiboe, F., Dixon, B.L., Nalley, L.L., Popp, J.S. and Luckstead, J. (2016). Estimating the impact of farmer field schools in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of cocoa. Agriculture and Economics. 47: 329-339. 

Editorial Board

View all (0)