Agricultural Reviews

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Agricultural Reviews, volume 42 issue 4 (december 2021) : 474-477

Conservation Agriculture: A Way for Soil Water Conservation

S. Selvakumar, K. Sivakumar
1Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.
Cite article:- Selvakumar S., Sivakumar K. (2021). Conservation Agriculture: A Way for Soil Water Conservation. Agricultural Reviews. 42(4): 474-477. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-2045.
World population is going on increasing, it may be 2.4 billion by 2050, but stabilizing the yield of crop is questionable in Indian agriculture due to improper management of agricultural land. Excess tillage accelerate the organic matter oxidation present on the top soil, soil erosion and creates subsurface hard pan. This makes the field unsuitable for cultivation of crops in future. Climate change is worsening the situation by imposing water scarcity in India. So to evade these problems, conservation agriculture is the only way. Main objectives of conservation agriculture is reducing tillage, year round cropping, crop rotation, mulching may be live or residue. Due to reduced mechanical tillage, activity of micro flora and macro flora get increases that improves biological tillage of soil, that in turn improves soil structure and enhances the plant growth. Most of the studies showed that the cost of wheat production and CO2 emission from the field is reduced when conservation agriculture was fallowed in rice-wheat cropping system. Crop rotation and also mixed cropping improves soil fertility and also it reduces soil erosion. It can be a part of climate smart agriculture. It reduces greenhouse gas emission and also it can improve carbon sequestration. Considerably it can save 20-30% of water. 
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