Agricultural Reviews

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Agricultural Reviews, volume 42 issue 1 (march 2021) : 111-115

Neem Coated Urea (NCU), An Efficient Nitrogen Source for Paddy Cultivation: A Review

Ashvin Kumar Meena, R.N. Meena, Kartikeya Choudhary, Anoop Kumar Devedee, Kamlesh Meena
1Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Cite article:- Meena Kumar Ashvin, Meena R.N., Choudhary Kartikeya, Devedee Kumar Anoop, Meena Kamlesh (2021). Neem Coated Urea (NCU), An Efficient Nitrogen Source for Paddy Cultivation: A Review. Agricultural Reviews. 42(1): 111-115. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-1980.
Green revolution dramatically change the nitrogen application in paddy cultivation and day by day its demand increased but excessive and imbalanced use of nitrogen fertilizer has raised certain global concerns, also its low nitrogen use efficiency. Nitrogen is required in huge amounts for rice and supply of N in the right amount, at the right rate and at right time throughout the growing season is most important to increase the yield. Approximately 90% of the N-fertilizer applied worldwide is in the NH4+ form, which is rapidly oxidized to NO3- by soil nitrifier bacteria. Whereas, NCU temporarily delays the bacterial oxidation of the ammonium-nitrogen by depressing over a certain period of time the activity of Nitrosomonas bacteria in the soil. So far more than 75 studies have been conducted to study the performance of NCU in increasing the yield of rice and several other crops. In rice more than 30% of the urea consumed in India is applied, the mean increase in grain yield by replacing urea with NCU is 5 to 6%. NCU has been observed to improve nitrogen use efficiency and subsequently grain yield of rice. Possibly, applying NCU following the site-specific nutrient management principles will lead to paddy production of higher levels as observed with ordinary urea but with lower fertilizer application rates.
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