Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 41 issue 3 (september 2020) : 185-200

Bioactivity of Plant Extracts against Cowpea Bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab): A Review

C. Shunmugadevi, S. Anbu Radhika
1PG and Research Department of Zoology, PMT College, Melaneelithanallur, Tirunelveli-627 953, Tamil Nadu, India.
Cite article:- Shunmugadevi C., Radhika Anbu S. (2020). Bioactivity of Plant Extracts against Cowpea Bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab): A Review. Agricultural Reviews. 41(3): 185-200. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-1970.
The objective of the present review is to know the bioactive compounds of the plant extract against Callosobruchus maculatus. Plants are able to produce a large number of bioactive compounds. Plant extract was found to have a wide range of bioactive compounds like Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Starch, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Triterpenoids, Resins, Saponins, Steroid, Proteins and Tannins. The high concentration of phytochemicals protects against the Callosobruchus maculatus. Recent revelations have shown that synthetic insecticides were found to penetrate into grains and may be toxic. Natural products such as botanical insecticides may provide suitable alternatives. The review obviously designated that plant products have potentials of controlling Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea as they are safe, free of residue and strong biological activities that are eco-friendly and biodegradable.
  1. Abdullahi, N. (2011). Studies on the efficacy of leaf extract of Balanites aegyptiaca on the oviposition and survival of immature stages (larvae and pupae) of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on stored cowpea seeds. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 4(1): 40-43.
  2. Adebiyi, A. O. and Tedela, P. O. (2012). Pesticidal effects of Barbula indica on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Nature and Science. 10(9): 113-115.
  3. Adenakan, M.O., Adejumo, A.O. Sodamola, M.O. and Ajetunmobi, T. (2013). Pesticidal effects of Moringa plant parts for the control of Bruchid beetle on cowpea seeds. International Journal of Applied Research and Technology. 2(6): 120-    125.
  4. Adejumo, T. O. (2012). Identification, incidence, severity and methods of control of the causal organism of false smut disease of cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF). 
  5. Ahmed, B. I., Onu, B.I., Mudi, L. and Aliyu, M. (2007). Comparative efficacy of some selected plant derived biopesticides for the control of insect pests of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] in Katsina State, Nigeria. Korean Journal of Crop Sci. 52(2): 183-197.
  6. Ahmed, M., Gupta, B. K. and Bhandari, R (1997). Antifeedant Potency of some plants produce against defoliating pest of popular, Clostere cuperata. Indian Journal of Forest. 123(3): 821-826.
  7. Ahmed, B. I., Onu, I. and Mudi, L. (2009). Field bioefficacy of plant extracts for the control of post flowering insect pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp in Nigeria. Journal of Biopesticides. 2(1): 37-43.
  8. Anbu Radhika, S. and K. Sahayaraj. (2016). Insecticidal activity of monocrotophos and pungam oil combination for cotton pest’s management under laboratory condition. Tropical Agronomy. 66(1-2): 125-133.
  9. Arnason J.T., B.J.R. Philogen and P., Morand. (1995). An overview of the use of plant Insecticides of Plant Origin. ACS, Symposium Series No. 387 American Chemical Society Washington, D.C. USA, 213.
  10. Arnold S.E.J., Stevenson P.C. and Belmain S.R. (2012). Odour-mediated orientation of beetles is influenced by age, sex and morph. Plos One. 7(11): 1-7.
  11. Asiwe J.A.N. (2006). Baseline survey on the production, constraints and utilization of cowpea in South Africa: Implications to cowpea improvement. Proceedings International Conference on indigenous vegetables and legumes: Prospects for fighting poverty, hunger and malnutrition. Organized by IPGRI, ICRISAT and ISHS, 12-15 December 2006 in Hyderabad, India. 2006: 621-622.
  12. Asawalam, E. F. and Dioka, U. J. (2012). Evaluation of toxicity of Dennitia tripetala Baker Fand Curcuma longa L. rhizomes against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Coleoptera: Bruchidae, Agricultural Science Research Journal. 2(6): 308 -311. 
  13. Bacci L., Picanco M. C., Barros E. C., Rosado J. F., Silva G. A., Silva V.F., (2009). Physiological selectivity of insecticides to wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) preying on the diamondback moth. Sociobiology. 53: 151-167.
  14. Baributsa .D., Lowenberg-DeBoer J., Murdock .L., Moussa B. (2010). Profitable chemical-free cowpea storage technology for smallholder farmers in Africa: Opportunities and challenges. Julius-Kühn-Archiv. 425: S.1046.
  15. Birah, A., Alpana, B.S., Mahapatro, G.K., Gupta, P. (2008). Toxicity evaluation of emamectin benzoate against tobacco Caterpillar (spodoptera utura) by three different assay techniques. Indian Journal of Entomology. 70(3): 200-205.
  16. Blade, S.F., Shetty, S.V.R., Terao, T., Singh, B.B. (1997). Recent developments in cowpea cropping systems research. In: Advances in Cowpea Research. [Singh, B.B., Mohan Raj, D.R., Dashiell, K.E., Jackai, L.E.N. (Eds.)],Co-publication of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Japan International Centre for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCSA), IITA, Ibadan, 114-128.
  17. Boeke, S. J., Boersma, M. G., Alink, G. M., van Loon, J. J., van Huis, A., Dicke, M., et al. (2004). Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides. J. Ethnopharmacol. 94: 25-41. 
  18. Booker, R.H. (1967). Observations on three Bruchids associated with cowpea in Northern Nigeria. Journal of Stored Products Research. 3: 1-15.
  19. Burchfield, H.P., Hilchey, J.D., Storrs, E.E. (1952). An objective method for insecticide bio- assay based on photomigration of mosquito larvae. Contributions from Boyce Thompson Institute.7: 57-86.
  20. Chothani, D.L., Vaghasiya, H.U., (2011). A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and pharmacological activity, Pharmacognosy Reviews. 5(9): 55-62.
  21. Cobley, S.L., (1956). Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops. Longman Group Limited. Essex, England. 79-98. 
  22. Deshpande, V.K., Makanur, B., Deshpande, S.K., Adiger, S., Salimath, P.M. (2011). Quantitative and qualitative losses caused by Callosobruchus maculates in cowpea during seed storage. Plant Archives. 11(2): 723-731.
  23. Dewey, J.E. (1958). Utility of bioassay in the determination of pesticide residues. Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 6(4): 274-281.
  24. Durmuºoglu, E., Hatipoglu, A., Gürkan, M.O., Moores, G. (2015). Comparison of different bioassay methods for determining insecticide resistance in European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Turkish Journal of Entomology. 39(3): 271-276.
  25. Ebenezer, O.O. (2010). Managemet of major field pests and yield of cowpea [Vigna unguiculate (L.) Walp] under calendar and monitored application of synthetic chemicals in Asaba, Southern Nigeria. African Journal of General Agriculture. 6(3): 177-186.
  26. Echendu, T.N.C. (1991). cashew and neem as surface protectants of cowpea against infestation and damage by Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) Journal of Tropical Science. 31: 209-211.
  27. Edwin, I.E., Jacob, I.E. (2017). Bio-insecticidal potency of five plant extracts against cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), on Stored Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L). Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences. 10(4): 317-322.
  28. Edde, P.A, Amatobi, C.I. (2003). Seed coat has no value in protecting cowpea seed against attack by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). J. Stored Prod. Res. 39: 1-10.
  29. Elhag, E.A. (2000). Deterrent effects of some botanical products on oviposition of the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Int. J. Pest. Manag. 46(2): 109-113.
  30. Ekeh, F.N., Onah, I.E. Atama, C.I. Ivoke, N. and Eyo, J.E. (2013). Effectiveness of botanical powders against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in some stored leguminous grains under laboratory conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology. 12(12): 1384-1391. 
  31. Faiza, G., Nadjia, Z., Ouassila, H., Abderrahmane, S., Alessio, C., Angela, Antonio, E., (2019). Bioefficacy of compounds from Dittrichia viscosa (Asteraceae) as protectant of chickpea seeds against the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection Volume. 126: 437-446.
  32. Fatope, M.O., Mann, A., Takeda Y. (1995). Cowpea weevil bioassay: A simple prescreen for plants with grain protectant effects, International Journal of Pest Management. 41(2): 44-86.
  33. Gbaye, O.A., Millard, J.C., Holloway, G.J. (2011). Legume type and temperature effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the genus Callosobruchus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 47: 8e12.
  34. Giga, D.P., Smith, R.H. (1983). Comparative life-history studies of 4 Callosobruchus species infesting cowpeas with special reference to Callosobruchus rhodesianus (pic) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Products Research. 19: 189-198.
  35. Hamman, S.I., Malgwi, A.M. and Micheal, C.G. (2012). Comparative efficacy of three biopesticides and a synthetic insecticide in controlling insect pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) in Yola, Nigeria, Nigerian Journal of Entomology. 29: 41-58.
  36. Huignard, J., Leroi, B., Alzouma, I., Germain, J.F. (1985). Oviposition and development of Bruchidius atrolineatus and Callosobruchus maculatus in Vigna unguiculata in cultures in Niger. Insect Sci. Appl. 6: 691-699.
  37. Immaraju, J.A., Morse, J.G., Brawne, O.L. (1990). Evaluation of three bioassay techniques for citrus thrips’ resistance and correlation of the leaf dip method to field mortality. Journal of Agricultural Entomology. 1: 17-27. 
  38. Isman, M.B. (2010). Botanical insecticides, deterrents and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Annual Revision of Entomology. 51: 45-66.
  39. Jackai, L.E.N. and Adalla, C.B. (1997). Pest Management Practices in Cowpea: A review. In: Advances in Cowpea Research, [edited by B.B. Singh, D.R. Mohan, Raj, K.E. Dashiell and L. E. N. Jackai]. Copublication of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Japan International Research Centre for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS). IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. Pages 240-258.
  40. Jackai, L.E.N. and Daoust, R.A. (1986). Insect pests of cowpea. Annual Review of Entomology. 31: 9-119.
  41. Jotwani, M.G. and Srikar, P. (1995) Neem as protectant against stored grain pests infesting wheet seed. Indian Journal of Entomology. 27: 160-164. 
  42. Kang, J.K., Pittendrigh, B.R., Onstad, D.W. (2013) Insect resistance management for stored product pests: A case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 106(6): 2473-2490.
  43. Khatri, P.K. and Meshram, P.B. (2014). Familiarizing with local biodiversity. Tropical Forest Research Institute, Mandala Road, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.
  44. Kiradoo, M.M., Srivastava, M.A. (2010). Comparative study on the efficacy of two Lamiaceae plants on egg laying performance by the pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Biopestic. 3(3): 590-595.
  45. Koul, O., Isman, M.B., Ketkar, C.M. (1990). Properties and uses of neem, Azadirachta indica. Canadian Journal of Botany. 68: 1-11.
  46. Kulkarni, N. and Joshi, K.C. (1998). Antifeedant properties of some botanical extracts against maharukha webworm, Atteva fabriciella sweed. Journal of Tropical Forest Products. 4(1): 11-16.
  47. Lale, N.E.S. (1995). An overview of the use of plant Insecticides of Plant Origin. ACS, Symposium Series No. 387 American Chemical Society Washington, D.C. USA, 213.
  48. Manukata, K. (1977). Insect antifeedants of Spodoptera litura in plants. In: Host Plant Resistance to Pests. [P.A. Hedin (Ed)]. ACS Symposium Series No. 62, American Chemical Society, Washington. Pp 185-196. 
  49. Martins, N. (2016). Petropoulos S and Ferreira ICF, Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review. Food Chemistry. 211(15): 41-50.
  50. Messina, F.J. (1984). Influence of cowpea pod maturity on the oviposition choices and larval survival of a bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 35: 241-248.
  51. Messina, FJ. (1990). Alternative life-histories in Callosobrucus maculatus: environmental and genetic bases. In: Bruchids and legumes: economics, ecology and co-evolution. [Fujii K, Gatehouse AMR, Johnson CD, Mitchell R, Yoshida T (eds)], Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Hague, pp 303-315.
  52. Messina, F.J. (1993). Heritability and evolvability of fitness components in Callosobruchusmaculatus. Heredity. 71: 623-629.
  53. Messina, F.J., Jones, J.C. (2009). Does rapid adaptation to a poor-quality host by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) cause cross-adaptation to other legume hosts? J. Stored. Prod. Res. 45: 215-219.
  54. Mkenda, P., Mwanauta, R., Stevenson, P.C., Ndakidemi, P., Mtei, K., Belmain, R.S., (2015). Extracts from Field Margin Weeds Provide Economically Viable and Environmentally Benign Pest Control Compared to Synthetic Pesticides, PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0143530 November 23, 2015.
  55. Monge, J.P, Huignard, J. (1991). Population fluctuations of two bruchids species Callosobruchus maculatus and Bruchidius atrolineatus and their parasitoids Dinarmus basalis and Eupelmus vuilleti in a storage situation in Niger. J Afr Zool. 105: 187-196.
  56. Mordue, A.J. and A. Blackwell. (1993). Azadirachtin: An update. Journal of Insect Physiology. 39: 903-924.
  57. Nahdy, M.S. (1995). Biotic and abiotic factors influencing the biology and distribution of common storage pests of pigeonpea. Ph.D Thesis, University of Reading, UK.
  58. Nahdy, M.S., Silim, S.N., Ellis, R.H. (1999). Effect of field infestations of immature pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] pods on production of active (flight) and sedentary (flightless) morphs of Callosobruchus chinensis (L.). J. Stored Prod. Res. 35: 339-354.
  59. Nelson, H.B., Heiman, R.G., Bolduc, C., Kovalick, G.E., Whitley, P., Stern, M., Beckingham, K. (1997). Calmodulin point mutations affect Drosophila development and behavior. Genetics. 147(4): 1783-1798.
  60. NRC (1992). Neem: A Tree for Solving Global Problems. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. 141pp.
  61. Ofuya, T.I., Agele, S.O. (1990). Ability of ovipositing Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) females to discriminate between seeds with differing numbers of emergence holes, Journal of Stored Products Research. 26: 117-120.
  62. Ogunwolu, O. and Idowu, O. (1994). Potential of powdered Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Rutacea) root bark and Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) seed for the control of the cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Bruchidae) in Nigeria. Journal of Zoology. 108: 521-528.
  63. Ojo, I.O. (1996). On the effectiveness of insecticides of biological origin. Proceeding of 25th Annual Conference. Entomological Society of Nigeria. 30: 25-31.
  64. Olotuah, O.F. and Ofuya, T.I. (2010). Comparative protection of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against field insect pests using cashew nut shell liquid and cypermethrin (Cymbush). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 9(2): 158-161.
  65. Ogunwolu, E.O., Aku, A.A. Attah, J. and Igolli, J.O. (2002). Control of seed bruchid [Callosobruchus maculatus F.] infestation in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] with Clausena anisata Hook (Rutacea). Bioscience Research Communications. 14(2): 205-211.
  66. Oparaeke, A.M., Dike, M.C. and Amatobi, C.I. (2005). Field valuation of extracts of five Nigerian species for control of postflowering insect pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Plant Protection Sciences. 41: 14-20. 
  67. Owolabi, A.O, Ndidi, U.S., James, B.D., Amune, F.A. (2012). Proximate, Antinutrient and Mineral composition of five varieties (improved and local) of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, commonly consumed in Samaru community, Zaria-Nigeria. Asian Journal of Food Science and Technology. 4(2): 70-72.
  68. Oyewale and Bamaiyi, (2013). Management of Cowpea Insect Pests Sch. Acad. J. Biosci. 1(5): 217-226.
  69. Potter, C. (1952). An improved laboratory apparatus for applying direct sprays and surface films with data on the electrostatic charge on atomized sprays. Annals of Applied Biology. 39: 1-28.
  70. Radha, R. and Susheela, P. (2014). Efficacy of plant extracts on the toxicity, ovipositional deterrence and damage assessment of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2(3): 16-20.
  71. Rachie, K.O. and Singh, S.R. (1985). Cowpea research production and utilization. John Wiley and Sons. New York. Brisbane pp, 22-25. 
  72. Rachie, K.O. (1975). Introduction. In: Research, Production and utilization, [S.R. Singh and O.K. Rachie (eds).], John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK. Pages xxi-xxiii.
  73. Raheja A.K. and Hays, A.M. (1975). Sole crop cowpea production by farmers using improved practices. Tropical Grain Legumes Bulletin. 1(1): 6. 
  74. Rahman, A. and Talukder, F.A. (2006). Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Journal of Insect Science. 6(3): 1-10. 
  75. Ratnasekera, D. and Rajapakse, R. (2012). The potential use of indigenous plant materials against Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored legumes in Sri Lanka. Journal of Biopesticides. 5(supplementary): 88-94.
  76. Redden, R.J., Singh, S.R., Luckefahr, M.J. (1984). Breeding for cowpea resistance to bruchids at IITA. Protection Ecology. 7: 291-303. 
  77. Saxena, R.C., Jilliani, G. and Kareem, A.A. (1988). Effects of neem on stored grain insects. In: Focus on phytochemical pesticides, [M. Jacobson (Eds.)]. Volume 1, The Neem Tree, CRC press, Florida. pp 97-111. 
  78. Schmutterer, H. (1990). Properties and potentials of natural pesticides from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica. Annual Review of Entomology. 35: 271-298.
  79. Shalaby, N.M.M., Abd-Alla, H.I., Ahmed, H.H. and Basoudan, N. (2011). Protective effect of Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantifolia against osteoporosis and their phytochemical constituents. J. Med. Plant. Res. 5(4): 579-588.
  80. Shan, Z.J. (1997). Status of pesticide pollution and management of China. Environmental Protection. 7: 40-43. 
  81. Singh, S.R. (1980). Biology of cowpea pests and potential for host plant resistance. In: Biology and Breeding for resistance to Arthropods and Pathogens in Agricultural plants. [Harris MK (ed)], Texas A and M Univ, Collage Station Texas, pp 398-421.
  82. Singh, S.R, Singh, B.B., Jackai, L.E.N., Ntare, B.R. (1983). Cowpea Research at IITA. In: IITA (ed). IITA, Ibadan Nigeria.
  83. Simon, J.Y. (2008). The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides. CRC press. 1-276. 
  84. Siqueira, H.A.A., Guedes, R.N.C., Picanço, M.C. (2000). Insecticide resistance in populations of Tuta absoluta (Lepdoptera: Gelechiidae), Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 2: 147-153.
  85. Siqueira, J.F., Rôças, I.N., Favieri, A, Lima. K.C. (2000). Chemomechanical reduction of the bacterial population in the root canal after instrumentation and irrigation with 1%, 2.5% and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. J. Endod. 26(6): 331-4.
  86. Southgate, B.J. (1978). New junior synonyms of Callosobruchus analis (F.) and Callosobruchus dolichosi (Gyll.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with notes on distribution. J. Stored Prod. Res. 14: 61-63.
  87. Sun, Y.P. (1963). Bioassay-Insects. In: Principles, methods and general applications-volume 1 in Analytical methods for pesticides, plant growth regulators and food additives (Eds. Gunter Zweig), Published by Elsevier. 399-423. 
  88. Talukder, F. A. (2006). Plant Products as potential stored-product insect management agents. A mini reviewm. Emirate Journal Agric. Sci. 18(1): 17-32. 
  89. Tuda M., Chou L.Y., Niyomdham C., Buranapanichpan S., Tateishi Y. (2005). Ecological factors associated with pest status in Callosobruchus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): high host specificity of non-pests to Cajaninae (Fabaceae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 41: 31-45.
  90. Tran, D.T., Thi Mai, H.D., Pham, V.C., Nguyen, V.H., Litaudon, M., Gueritte, F.O., Nguyen Q.V., Tran, T.A., Chau. V.M. (2013). Alkaloids and styryllactones from the leaves of Goniothalamus tamirensis. Phytochemistry Letters. 6: 79-83.
  91. Taylor TA (1981). Distribution, ecology and importance of bruchids attacking grain legumes in Africa. In: The ecology of bruchids atacking leguimes (Pulses). [Labeyrie V (ed)], Dr. W Junk Publishers, London, 199-203.
  92. Utida, S. (1972). Density dependent polymorphism in the adult of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 8: 111-125. 
  93. Yusuf, A.U., Dike, M.C., Adebitan, S.A. and Ahmed, B.I. (2011). Comparative efficacy of seven plant products on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus development and damage, Journal of Biopesticides. 4(1): 19-26. 
  94. Zannou, E.T., Glitho, I.A., Huignard, J., Monge, J.P. (2003). Life history of flight morph females of Callosobruchus maculatus F.: evidence of a reproductive diapause, Biopesticides. 4(1): 19-26.

Editorial Board

View all (0)