Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 43 issue 2 (june 2022) : 154-161

Cesarean Section in Cattle: A Review

Devender Kumar, Satish, Govind Narayan Purohit
1Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner-302 004, Rajasthan, India.
Cite article:- Kumar Devender, Satish, Purohit Narayan Govind (2022). Cesarean Section in Cattle: A Review. Agricultural Reviews. 43(2): 154-161. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-1933.
Cesarean section is one of the oldest surgical procedure performed on cows for delivery of the fetus at parturition. Depending upon the health status of dam and fetus cesarean section has been classified as emergency, non emphysematous and emphysematous procedure. The common maternal indications for performing cesarean section include pelvic fractures, cervical dilation failure and uncorrectable uterine torsion whereas the fetal indication include oversized fetuses and maldisposed calves. Many anesthetic protocols are available for cow however, most cesarean section in cattle can be satisfactorily performed under mild sedation and local infiltration anesthesia using 2% lidocaine. Operative sites for cesarean section in cattle include right and left flank, midline, paramedian, parammary and oblique ventrolateral. The choice of operative sites depends upon facility and patient condition. Peri-operative (before, during and after the operation) care appears to be of utmost significance, post-operative complications of cesarean section include peritonitis, seroma formation, hernia and poor fertility. On the successful outcome of cesarean section in cows in terms of dam and calf survival and future fertility of cows underdoing cesarean section. Previous handling, delay in presentation to referral centers results in poor outcome and thus animal owners must be explained the benefits of prompt presentation of cow to cesarean section for optimal benefits.

  1. Alexander, D. (2013). Bovine caesarean section. On-farm operations. In Practice. 35: 574-588.

  2. Barkema, H., Schukken, Y., Guard, C. (1992b). Fertility, production and culling following cesarean section in dairy cattle. Theriogenol. 38: 589-99. 

  3. Barkema, H., Schukken, Y., Guard, C., Brand, A., Vander, G.C (1992a). Cesarean section in dairy cattle: a study of risk factors. Theriogenol. 37: 489-506. 

  4. Beddard, S., Desrochers, A., Fecteau, G., Higgins, R. (2001). Comparison of four protocols for preoperative preparation in cattle. Can Vet J. 42: 199-203.

  5. Bouchard, E., Daignault, D., Belanger, D., Coutere, Y. (1994). Cesareans on dairy cows: 159 cases. Can Vet J. 35: 770-4.

  6. Bronislawski, S. (1950). Two methods of cesarean section in cows. Med Weter. 6: 417-18.

  7. Campbell, M., Fubini, S. (1990). Indications and surgical approaches for cesarean section in cattle. Compend Cont Educ. 12: 285-91.

  8. Catell, J.H., Dobson, H. (1990). A survey of caesarean operations on cattle in general veterinary practice. Vet Rec. 127: 395-9.

  9. Caulkett, N., Cribb, P., Duke, D. (1993). Xylazine epidural analgesia for cesarean section in cattle. Can Vet J. 34: 674-6. 

  10. Daly, W.R. (1985). Wound infections. In: Textbook of veterinary surgery, [Slatter, D., editor.] second edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders. p. 42.

  11. Dawson, J.C., Murray, R. (1992). Caesarean sections in cattle attended by a practice in Cheshire. Vet Rec. 131: 525-27.

  12. Dehghani, S., Ferguson, J. (1982). Cesarean section in cattle: complications. Compend Cont Educ 4: s387-92.

  13. Desrochers, A., Harvey, D. (2002). Surgeries of the abomasum in cattle. Montreal: University of Montreal.

  14. Desrochers, A., St. Jean, G. anderson, Rogers D.P., Chengappa, M.M. (1996). Comparative evaluation of two surgical scrub preparations in cattle. Vet Surg. 25: 336-41. 

  15. Drife, J. (2002). The start of life: A history of obstetrics. Post Grad Med J. 78: 311-15.

  16. Dubay, B.M. (1987). Dystocia due to stenosis of pelvic outlet in a buffalo. Indian J. Anim Reprod. 8: 156.

  17. Frazer, G.S., Perkins, N.R. (1995). Cesarean section. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 11: 19-35.

  18. Frazer, G.S., Perkins, N.R., Constable, P.D. (1996). Bovine uterine torsion: 164 hospital referral cases. Theriogenol. 46: 739- 58.

  19. Gendreau, L.A. (1947). Cesarean section and torsion of the uterus in cows. J. Am Vet. Med. Assoc. 110: 305-07. 

  20. Hiew, M.W.H., Baird, A.N., Peter, D. Constable. (2018). Clinical signs and outcomes of beef cattle undergoing cesarean section because of dystocia. J. Am Vet. Med. Assoc. 252: 864- 872.

  21. Hiew, M.W.H., Megahed, A.A., Townsend, J.R., et al. (2016). Clinical util­ity of calf front hoof circumference and maternal intrapelvic area in predicting dystocia in 103 late gestation Holstein-Frie­sian heifers and cows. Theriogenology. 85: 384-395. 

  22. Hoeben, D., Mijten, P., de Kruif, A. (1997). Factors influencing complications during caesarean section on the standing cow. Vet Q 19: 88-92.

  23. Kolkman, I., Opsomer, G., Lips, D., Lindenberg, B., de Kruif, A., Vliegher, S. De (2010b). Pre-operative and operative difficulties during bovine cesarean section in Belgium and associated risk factors. Reprod Dom Anim. 45: 1020-27. 

  24. Kolkman, I., Vliegher, S. De, Hoflack, G., Van Aert, M., Laureyms, J., Lips, D., de Kruif, A., Opsomer, G. (2007). Protocol for the cesarean section as performed in daily bovine practice in Belgium. Reprod Dom Anim. 42: 583-89.

  25. Kuzmin, G.N. (1974). Anesthesia in cesarean section in cows. Veterinariia. 11: 89-91.

  26. LeBlanc, M., Hubbell, J., Smith, H. (1984). The effects of xylazine hydrochloride on uterine pressure in the cow. Theriogenol. 21: 681-90.

  27. Lensch, J. (1958). Clinical views on cesarotomy in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 133: 205-07.

  28. Lyons, N.A., Karvountzis, S., Knight-Jones, T.J. (2013). Aspects of bovine caesarean section associated with calf mortality, dam surviv­al and subsequent fertility. Vet J. 197: 342-350. 

  29. Mijten, P., de Kruif, A., Van der Weyden, G.C., Deluyker, H. (1997b). Comparison of catgut and polyglactin 910 for uterine sutures during bovine caesarean sections. Vet Rec. 140: 458-9.

  30. Mijten, P., van den Bogaard, A., Hazen, M., de Kruif, A. (1997a). Bacterial contamination of fetal fluids at the time of cesarean section in the cow. Theriogenol. 48: 513-21.

  31. Newlyn, T.A., Mostyn, H.J. (1950). Cesarean section in an ewe. Vet. Med. 45: 252-53.

  32. Newman, K. (2008). Bovine cesarean section in the field. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 24: 273-93.

  33. Newman, K.D. anderson, D.E. (2005). Cesarean section in cows. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 9: 369-88.

  34. Nogalski, Z., Mordas, W. (2012). Pelvic parameters in Holstein- Friesian and Hersey heifers in relation to their calving. Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 32: 507-10.

  35. Noordsy, J.L. (1979). Selection of an incision site for cesarean section in the cow. Vet Med Small Anim Clin. 74: 530-7. 

  36. Oehme, F.W. (1967). The ventro-lateral cesarean section in the cow. Vet Med Small Anim Clin. 62: 889-94.

  37. Parish, S.M., Tyler, J.W., Ginsky, J.V. (1995). Left oblique celiotomy approach for cesarean section in standing cows. J. Am Vet Med Assoc. 207: 751-2.

  38. Pearson, H. (1999). The cesarean operation. In: [Arthur, G.H., Noakes, D.E., Pearson, H., Parkinson, T.J. eds]. Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics 7th ed Philadelphia WB Saunders co. p. 311-31. 

  39. Purohit, G.N. (2006a). Dystocia in the sheep and goats: A review. Indian J. Small Rumin. 12: 1-12.

  40. Purohit, G.N. (2006b). Parturition related disorders in sheep and goats. Proc National Seminar on Innovations in Reproduction for Small Ruminant Production Avikanagar Jaipur. pp 227- 231.

  41. Purohit, G.N., Barolia, Y., Shekhar, C., Kumar, P. (2011b). Diagnosis and correction of uterine torsion in cattle and buffaloes. Raksha Technical Review. 1(2): 11-17.

  42. Purohit, G.N., Gaur, M., Kumar, A., Shekher, C., Ruhil, S. (2013). Perspectives of cesarean section in buffaloes. Asian Pacific J. Reprod. 2(3): 223-237.

  43. Purohit, G.N., Gupta, A.K., Gaur, M., Bihani, D.K., Sharma, A. (2006). Periparturient disorders in goats: a retrospective analysis of 324 cases. Dairy Goat J. 84: 24-33.

  44. Purohit, G.N., Kumar, P., Solanki, K., Shekher, C., Yadav, S.P. (2011c). Perspectives of fetal dystocia in cattle and buffaloes. Vet Sci Dev (Under Publication).

  45. Purohit, G.N., Mehta, J.S. (2006). Dystocia in cattle and buffaloes. A retrospective analysis of 156 cases. Vet Practitioner. 7: 31-34.

  46. Ravinder, G.K., Ravi, D., Deori, S., Pradeep, J., Pradeep, K., Gokuldas, P.P., Ahmed, S., Shah, R.H. (2008). Incomplete cervical dilation causing dystocia in a buffalo. Indian J. Vet Res. 17: 41-43.

  47. Schultz, L.G., Tyler, J.F., Moll, D.H. (2008). Surgical approaches for cesarean section in cattle. Can Vet J. 49: 565-68. 

  48. Shah, Z., Kalhore, A.B., Kachiwal, A.B., Ahmad, I., Sattar, H. and Khan, M.A. (2014). Comparative studies on sedative and analgesic effects of xylazine and detomidine in goats. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 21(1): 1019-1023. 

  49. Shah, Z., Tunio, A.N., Ahmad, S., Ahmad, I., Ali, J. and Khan, S.B. (2017). Cesarean sections through flank incision in exotic cattle breed. Meat Sciences and Veterinary Public Health. 2(1): 1-4.

  50. Skarda, R.T. (1996). Local and regional anesthetic techniques: ruminants and swine. In: Lumb and Jones’ Veterinary Anesthesia, third edition. [Thurman, J., Tranquilli, W., Benson, G., editors.] Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. p. 486-96.

  51. Sloss, V., Dufty, J.H. (1977). Elective caesarean operation in Hereford cattle. Aust Vet J. 53: 420-4.

  52. St. Jean G, Skarda RT, Muir WW (1990). Caudal epidural analgesia induced by xylazine administration in cows. Am J. Vet. Res. 8: 1232-6.

  53. Tharp, V.L., Heidt, K.R., Whiteus, R.G. (1951). Correction of bovine dystocia by cesarean section and ovariohysterectomy. Vet. Med. 46: 289-90.

  54. Turner, A.S., McIllwraith, C.W. (1989). Bovine urogenital surgery. Techniques in Large Animal Surgery 2nd ed Lea and Febriger Philadelphia. pp 330-32.

  55. Tyagi, R.P.S., Singh, J. (2008). ed Ruminant Surgery. CBS Publishers and Distributors New Delhi p 284-86.

  56. Vaughan, L., Mulville, P. (1995). A survey of bovine cesarean sections in Ireland. Irish Vet .J. 48: 411-5.

  57. Wit, F. De, Raymakers, R., Westerbeek, J., Mitjen, P., de Kruif, A. (1993). A study of uterine adhesions following suturing of the uterus with catgut or Vicryl in cesarean sections in cattle. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde. 118: 478-79.

  58. Young, J.H. (1944). Caesarean Section: The History and Development of the Operation From Early Times, London: H.K. Lewis and Co. Ltd. 

  59. Zuagg, J., Nussbaum, M. (1990). Epidural injection of xylazine: a new option for surgical anesthesia of the bovine abdomen and udder. Vet. Med. 85: 1043-6. 

Editorial Board

View all (0)