Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 40 issue 3 (september 2019) : 192-199

Environment-Pathogen Interaction in Plant Diseases

Rajat Sharma, Shalini Verma
1Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni Solan-173230 H.P. India
Cite article:- Sharma Rajat, Verma Shalini (2019). Environment-Pathogen Interaction in Plant Diseases. Agricultural Reviews. 40(3): 192-199. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-1859.
Environment is an important aspect of plant ecology and global environmental change is of major concern that is caused by natural and human activities which alter greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The increase in concentration of greenhouse gases is foreseen to continue to raise average global temperature. Elevated concentration of carbon dioxide with increased temperature influences the plant-disease interactions. The environment has an influence over the development as well as temporal and spatial dissemination of plant diseases. The result of change in environment can either be favorable, non favorable or impartial, as these changes can either lessen, expand or have no influence on diseases as each disease may be attributed differently to these variations in accordance to an area or time of year. Variation in environmental conditions is said to be influencing plants in natural ecosystems all around the world and change in climate directly impacts crops, along with their synergy in accordance with the microbial population. The important elements governing magnification and spread of plant diseases are temperature, moisture, light and carbon dioxide concentration. Environment change causes a significant impact on germination, reproduction, sporulation, spore dispersal, along with perforation by pathogens as a vulnerable host will not be invaded by a pernicious pathogen if the environmental conditions are not facilitative for disease. The environment influences all life stages of host as well as that of a pathogen and as a result induces an opposition to various pathosystems. Resistance mechanisms of plants, including effector-triggered immunity (ETI), pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and defence network of hormones, are particularly influenced by environmental elements. Pathogenic virulence mechanisms like fabrication of virulence proteins and toxins, and also spore germination and survival are governed by factors such as atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature and humidity. A large number of in-vitro experiments to understand interactions between plants and pathogens rely on predetermined pathosystems by making use of ascertained environmental conditions which take into consideration relatively small part of vital plant–pathogen–environment interactions occurring in natural ecosystem. Thus, there is a need to research effectiveness of disease management strategies that is, to assess current management strategies to understand multifaceted nature of environment-pathogen interactions for production of crops that are irrepressible to environment change.
  1. Agrios, G. N. (2005). Plant Pathology 5th edition. Elsevier, London. pp.249-263.
  2. Anonymous (2016). ato_leafcurl_newdelhi 18/12/2018.
  3. Ashraf, S., Khan, G. A., Ali, S., Iftikhar, M. and Mehmood, N. (2014). Managing insect pests and diseases of citrus: on farm analysis from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 26:301-307. 
  4. Beyer, M., Verreet, J. A. and Ragab, W. S. (2005). Effect of relative humidity on germination of ascospores and macroconidia of Gibberella zeae and deoxynivalenol production. International journal of Food Microbiology, 98:233–240. 
  5. Bishop, A. L. and Davis, R. M. (1990). Internal decay of onions caused by Enterobacter cloacae. Plant Diseases, 74:692-694. 
  6. Boland, G. J., Melzer, M. S., Hopkin, A., Higgins, V. and Nassuth, A. (2004). Climate change and plant diseases in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 26:335-350. 
  7. Bowes, G. (1993). Facing the inevitable: plants and increasing atmospheric CO2. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 44:309-332. 
  8. Caldwell, M. M., Bornman, J. F., Ballaré, C. L., Flint, S. D. and Kulandaivelu, G. (2007). Terrestrial ecosystems, increased solar ultraviolet radiation, and interactions with other climate change factors. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, 6:252-266. 
  9. Canto, T., Aranda, M. and Fereres, A. (2008). Climate change effects on physiology and population processes of host and vectors that influence the spread of hemipteran-borne plant viruses. Global Change Biology, 8:1884-1894. 
  10. Chakraborty, S. and Datta, S. (2003). How will plant pathogens adapt to host plant resistance at 2 elevated CO2 under a changing climate? New Phytologist, 159:733-42.
  11. Chakraborty, S. and Newton, A. C. (2011). Climate change, plant diseases and food security: an overview.  Plant Pathology, 60:2–14. 
  12. Cheng, C., Gao, X., Feng, B., Sheen, J., Shan, L. and He, P. (2013). Plant immune response to pathogens differs with changing temperatures. Nature Communications, pp. 2530. 
  13. Choueiri, E., Jreijiri, F., Issa, S., Verdin, E., Bové J. and Garnier, M. (2001). First report of a phytoplasma disease of almond (Prunus amygdalus) in Lebanon. Plant Diseases, 85:802-803. 
  14. Ciliberti, N., Fermaud, M., Roudet, J. and Rossi, V. (2015). Environmental conditions affect Botrytis cinerea infection of mature grape berries more than the strain or transposon genotype. Phytopathology, 105:1090–1096. 
  15. Clarkson, J. P., Fawcett, L., Anthony, S. G. and Young, C. (2014). A model for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection and disease development in lettuce, based on the effects of temperature, relative humidity and ascospore density. PLoS One, 4:940-949. 
  16. Coakley,  S. M., Scherm, H. and Chakraborty, S. (1999).  Climate change and plant disease management. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 37:399-426.
  17. Couto, D. and Zipfel, C. (2016). Regulation of pattern recognition receptor signalling in plants. Nature Reviews Immunology, 16:537–552. 
  18. Cowger, C., Patton-Ozkurt, J., Brown-Guedira, G. and Perugini, L. (2009). Post-anthesis moisture increased Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol levels in North Carolina winter wheat. Phytopathology, 99:320–327. 
  19. Debela, C. and Tola M. (2018). Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on crop-diseaase interactions under rapid climate change. International Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources, 13:1-7. 
  20. Daszak, P., Berger, L., Cunningham, A. A., Hyatt, A. D., Green, D. E. and Speare, R. (1999). Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5: 735. 
  21. Daszak, P., Cunningham, A. A. and Hyatt, A. D. (2003). Infectious disease and amphibian population declines. Diversity and  Distributions, 9:141-150. 
  22. Desprez-Loustau, M. L., Robin, C., Reynaud, G., Dèquè, M., Badeau, V., Piou, D., Husson, C.  and Marçais, B. (2007). Simulating the effects of a climate-change scenario on the geographical range and activity of forest pathogenic fungi. Cannadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 29:101-120. 
  23. Eastburn, D. M., Degennaro, M. M., Delucia, E. H., Dermody, O. and Mcelrone, A. J. (2010). Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone alter soybean diseases at SoyFACE. Global Change Biology, 16:320-330. 
  24. Eastburn,  D. M., McElrone, A. J. and Bilgin, D. D. (2011). Influence of atmospheric and climatic change on plant-pathogen interactions. The Plant Pathology, 60:54-59.
  25. Ghini, R. Hamada, E. and Bettiol, W. (2008). Climate change and plant disease. Scientia Agricola, 65:98-107. 
  26. Granke, L. L. and Hausbeck, M. K. (2010). Effects of temperature, humidity, and wounding on development of Phytophthora rot of cucumber fruit. Plant Disease, 94:1417–1424. 
  27. Hannukkala, A. O., Kaukoranta, T., Lehtinen, A. and Rahkonen, A. (2007). Late‐blight epidemics on potato in Finland, 1933–2002; increased and earlier occurrence of epidemics associated with climate change and lack of rotation. Plant Pathology, 56:167-176. 
  28. Hernandez-Martinez, R., Cerda, C. A., Costa, H. S., Cooksey D. A. and Wong, F. P. (2007). Phylogenetic relationships of Xylella fastidiosa strains isolated from landscape ornamentals in southern California. Phytopathology, 97:857-864. 
  29. Hibberd, J. M., Whitbread, R. and Farrar, J. F. (1996). Effect of elevated concentrations of CO2 on infection of barley by Erysiphe graminis. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 48: 37-53. 
  30. IPCC (2007) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, The Fourth IPCC Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 
  31. Islam, T. M. D. and Toyota, K. (2004). Effect of moisture conditions and pre-incubation at low temperature on bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Microbes and Environments, 19:244–247. 
  32. Jesus Júnior, W.C., Cecilio, R.A., Valadares Júnior, R., Cosmi, F.C. and Moraes, W.B. (2007). Aquecimento global e o potencial impacto na cultura e doenças do mamoeiro. MARTINS D, COSTA AN; COSTA, AFS Papaya Brazil–manejo, qualidade e mercado do mamão. Vitória: Incaper, pp. 83-100. 
  33. Jones, R. A. C. (2009). Plant virus emergence and evolution: origins, new encounter scenarios, factors driving emergence, effects of changing world conditions, and prospects for control. Virus Research, 141:113-130. 
  34. Jones, J. D., Vance, R. E. and Dangl, J. L. (2016). Intracellular innate immune surveillance devices in plants and animals. Science, 354, aaf 6395. 
  35. Kobayashi, T., Ishiguro, K., Nakajima, T., Kim, H. Y., Okada, M. and Kobayashi, K. (2006). Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on the infection of rice blast and sheath blight. Phytopathology, 96:425-431.
  36. Legreve, A. and Duveiller, E. (2010). Climate change and crop production. In: Preventing potential diseases and pest epidemics under a changing climate.  Reynolds, M. P. (ed.). Wallingford, CABI, pp. 50-70. 
  37. Long, S. P., Ainsworth, E. A., Leakey, A. D., No sberger, J. and Ort, D.R. (2006). Food for thought: lower-than-expected crop yield stimulation with rising CO2 concentrations. Science, 312:1918–1921. 
  38. Magarey, R. D., Sutton, T. B. and Thayer, C. L. (2005). A simple generic infection model for foliar fungal plant pathogens. Phytopathology, 95:92–100. 
  39. Mahato,  A. ( 2014).  Climate Change and its Impact on Agriculture.  International Journal of    Scientific and Research Publications, 4:1-6.
  40. Malmstrom, C. M., Melcher, U. and Bosque-Perezc, N. A. (2011). The expanding field of plant virus ecology: Historical foundations, knowledge gaps, and research directions. Virus Research, 159:84-94. 
  41. Manning, W. J. and Tiedemann, A. V. (1995). Climate change: potential effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant diseases. Environmental Pollution, 88:219-245. 
  42. Mcelrone, A. J., Reid, C. D., Hoye, K. A., Hart, E. and Jackson, R. B. (2005). Elevated CO2 reduces disease incidence and severity of a red maple fungal pathogen via changes in host physiology and leaf chemistry. Global Change Biology, 11:1828-1836. 
  43. Melloy, P., Hollaway, G., Luck, J.O., Norton, R.O.B. and Aitken, E. (2010). Production and fitness of Fusarium pseudograminearum inoculum at elevated carbon dioxide in FACE. Global Change Biology, 16:3363- 3373. 
  44. Milus, E. A., Seyran, E. and McNew, R. (2006). Aggressiveness of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates in the South-Central United States. Plant Disease, 90:847-852. 
  45. Moricca, S., Linaldeddu, B. T., Ginetti, B., Scanu, B., Franceschini, A. and Ragazzi, A. (2016). Endemic and emerging pathogens threatening cork oak trees: Management options for conserving a unique forest ecosystem. Plant Diseases, 100:2184-2193. 
  46. Mukhtar, M. S., McCormack, M. E., Argueso, C. T. and Pajerowska-Mukhtar, K. M. (2016). Pathogen tactics to manipulate plant cell death. Current Biology, 26:608–619. 
  47. Okamoto, M., Tanaka, Y., Abrams, S. R., Kamiya, Y., Seki, M. and Nambara, E. (2009). High humidity induces abscisic acid 8’-hydroxylase in stomata and vasculature to regulate local and systemic abscisic acid responses in arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 149:825–834. 
  48. Oliver, R. P. and Solomon, P. S. (2008). Recent fungal diseases of crop plants: Is lateral gene transfer a common theme? Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 21:287-293.
  49. Panchal, S. and Melotto, M. (2017). Stomate-based defense and environmental cues. Plant Signalling and Behavior, 9:2021-2032. 
  50. Panchal, S., Chitrakar, R., Thompson, B.K., Obulareddy, N., Roy, D., Hambright, W.S. and Melotto, M. (2016). Regulation of stomatal defense by air relative humidity. Plant Physiology, 172:2016–2021.
  51. Paul, N. D. (2000). Stratospheric ozone depletion, UV-B radiation and crop disease. Environmental Pollution, 108:343-355. 
  52. Ploetz, R. C., Inch, S. A., Pérez-Martínez J. M. and Jr. White T. L. (2012). Systemic infection of avocado, Persea americana, by Raffaelea lauricola, does not progress into fruit pulp or seed. Journal of Phytopathology, 160:491-495
  53. Podger, F. D., Mummery, D. C., Palzer, C. R. and Brown, M. L. (1990). Bioclimatic analysis of the distribution of damage to native plants in Tasmania by Phytophthora. Australian Journal of Ecology, 15:281-289. 
  54. Prasch, C. M. and Sonnewald, U. (2013). Simultaneous application of heat, drought, and virus to arabidopsis plants reveals significant shifts in signaling networks. Plant Physiology, 162:1849–1866.
  55. Pritchard, S. G., Rogers, H. H., Prior, S. A. and Peterson, C. M. (1999). Elevated CO2 and plant structure: A review. Global Change Biology, 5:807-837.
  56. Rabaglia, R. J., Dole S. A. and Cognato, A. I. (2006). Review of American Xyleborina (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) occurring north of Mexico, with an illustrated key. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 99:1034-1056.
  57. Regniere, J. (2012). Invasive species, climate change and forest health. In: Forests in Development: A Vital Balance. Schlichter, T.  and Montes, L. (eds.). Springer, Berlin. pp.27-37.
  58. Ritchie, F., Bain, R. and  Mcquilken, M. (2013). Survival of sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani AG3PT and effect of soil-borne inoculum density on disease development on potato. Journal of Phytopathology, 161:180–189.
  59. Robson, J. D., Wright, M. G. and Almeida, R. P. P. (2007). Biology of Pentalonia nigronervosa  (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on banana using different rearing methods. Environmental Entomology, 36:46–52.
  60. Rosenzweig, C. and Tubiello, F. N. (2007). Adaptation and mitigation strategies in agriculture: an analysis of potential synergies. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12: 855-873.
  61. Schwartz, A. R., Morbitzer, R., Lahaye, T. and Staskawicz, B. J. (2017). TALE-induced bHLH transcription factors that activate a pectate lyase contribute to water soaking in bacterial spot of tomato. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114:897–903.
  62. Singh, R. P., Hodson, D. P.,  Huerta-Espino, J.,  Jin, Y.,  Bhavani, S.,  Njau, P. and Govindan, V. (2011). The emergence of Ug99 races of the stem rust fungus is a threat to world wheat production. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 49:465-481.
  63. Stevens, R. B. (1960). Cultural practices in disease control. In: Plant Pathology: An Advanced Treatise, volume III: The Diseases Population Epidemics and Control. Horsfall, J.G. (ed.) Academic PressInc, London, pp. 357–429.
  64. Thakur A., Verma S, Vedukola P. and Sharma D. (2019). Hypersensitive responses in plants- A review. Agricultural Reviews, 40(2):
  65. Thomas, T. (1989). Sugar beet in the greenhouse - a global warning. Brown Sugar, 59:24-26.
  66. Vary, Z., Mullins, E., McElwain, J. C. and Doohan, F. M. (2015). The severity of wheat diseases increases when plants and pathogens are acclimatized to elevated carbon dioxide. Global Change Biology, 21:2661– 2669.
  67. Vedukola P., Verma S., Sharma D. and Thakur, A. (2019). Role of resistant-proteins in plant innate immunity- A review. Agricultural Reviews, 40(1):12-20.
  68. Von Tiedemann, A. and Firsching, K. H. (2000). Interactive effects of elevated ozone and carbon dioxide on growth and yield of leaf rust-infected versus non-infected wheat. Environmental Pollution, 108:357-363.
  69. Whitfield, A.E., Falk, B.W. and Rotenberg, D. (2015). Insect vector-mediated transmission of plant viruses. Virology, pp. 479–480.
  70. Whitham, S., McCormick, S. and Baker, B. (1996). The N gene of tobacco confers resistance to tobacco mosaic virus in transgenic tomato. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93:8776–8781.
  71. Xin, X.F., Nomura, K., Aung, K., Vela´ squez, A.C., Yao, J., Boutrot, F., Chang, J. H., Zipfel, C. and He, S. Y. (2016). Bacteria establish an aqueous living space as a crucial virulence mechanism. Nature, 539:524–529.
  72. Zirak, L., Bahar, M. and Ahoonmanesh, A. (2009). Characterization of phytoplasmas associated with almond diseases in Iran. Journal of  Phytopathology, 157:736-741.

Editorial Board

View all (0)