Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 40 issue 1 (march 2019) : 12-20

Role of resistant-proteins in plant innate immunity- A review

Vedukola Pulla Reddy, Shalini Verma, Deepika Sharma, Ankita Thakur
1Department of Plant Pathology, Dr.Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Cite article:- Reddy Pulla Vedukola, Verma Shalini, Sharma Deepika, Thakur Ankita (2019). Role of resistant-proteins in plant innate immunity- A review. Agricultural Reviews. 40(1): 12-20. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-1854.
Plants are affected by an extensive range of microbes, such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, and protozoa. Over the advancement, plants have evolved to defend against pathogens by developing numerous defense mechanisms in the plant cell that respond to chemical and physical barriers, These are present in plants locally or integrally. Plants have an unacquired immunity system to battle against pathogens, such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are recognized through pattern recognition receptors in a primitive immune system which intermediates the defense response. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) they play a major role in plant innate immune system. They encode host sensors of PRRs, they can able to detect molecules of the pathogens such as macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and epithelial cells containing proteins that are present in plant immune system. In this system, they identify two classes of molecules such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are conjoined with microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPS), and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These are correlated with host cells released during cell damage or cell death, these are evolved before adaptive immunity. These extracellular receptors of Pattern Recognition Receptors were first identified in plants and many plant PRRs have been identified by using genomic analysis (rice and Arabidopsis). There are six classes of R-proteins, playing the major role of plant innate immunity which help to activate a defense mechanism from different microbes. Many of plant R genes encode proteins which are nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats (NB-LRR) region that contact with pathogen effectors to cause defense responses. Pathogen infection in plants is usually limited by an accomplished defense response activated by resistance genes.
  1. Agrios,G.N. (2005). Plant Pathology.5th ed. Elsevier Academic Press, USA. 903P
  2. Altenbach, D. and Robatzek, S. (2007).Pattern recognition receptors: from the cell surface to intracellular dynamics. Molecular Plant-    Microbe Interactions 20:1031-1039.
  3. Bahar, O., Pruitt, R., Luu, D.D., Schwessinger, B., Daudi, A., Liu, F., Ruan, R., (2014). The Xanthomonas Ax21 protein is processed by the general secretory system and is secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. Peer Journal 2: 242.
  4. Bai, J., Pennill, L.A., Ning, J., Lee, S.W., Ramalingam, J., Webb, C.A., Zhao, B., Sun, Q., (2002). Diversity in nucleotide binding site-    leucine-rich repeat genes in cereals. Genome Research12: 1871-1884.
  5. Bella, J., Hindle, K.L., McEwan, P.A., and Lovell, S.C. (2008). The leucine-rich repeat structure. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 65: 2307-2333.
  6. Beutler, B., Jiang, Z., Georgel, P., Crozat, K., Croker, B., Rutschmann, S., Du, X. and Hoebe, K. (2006). Genetic analysis of host resistance: Toll-like receptor signaling and immunity at large. Annual Review of Immunology 24: 353–89. 
  7. Boller, T. and Felix, G. (2009). A renaissance of elicitors: perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns and danger signals by pattern-recognition receptors. Annual Review of Plant Biology 60: 379–406. 
  8. Brueggeman, R., Rostoks, N., Kudrna, D., Kilian, A., Han, F. and Chen, J. (2002).The barley stem rust- resistance gene Rpg1 is a novel disease-resistance gene with homology to receptor kinases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:9328e33.
  9. Chisholm, S.T., Coaker, G., Day, B.,and Staskawicz, B.J.(2006). “Host-microbe interactions: shaping the evolution of the plant immune response”. Cell 124: 803–14. 
  10. Deslandes, L., Olivier, J., Theulieres, F., Hirsch, J., Feng, D.X., Bittner-Eddy, PD., Beynon, J. and Marco, Y. (2002).Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis thaliana is conferred by the recessive RRS1-R gene, a member of a novel family of resistance genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:2404-2409.
  11. Deslandes, L., Olivier, J., Peeters, N., Feng, D.X., Khounlotham, M., Boucher, C., (2003). Physical interaction between RRS1-R, a protein conferring resistance to bacterial wilt, and pop 2, a type III effector targeted to the plant nucleus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100:8024-8029.
  12. Dev ,S.S., Poornima, P.,Venu, A. (2018).Molecular characterization and phylogenitic analysis of NBS-LRR genes in wild relatives of egg plant (Solanum melongina L.). Indian Journal of Agricultural Research 52:167-171.
  13. De Wit, P.J.G.M. (2007). How plants recognize pathogens and defend themselves. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 64: 2726–2732.
  14. Glazebrook, J. (2005). Contrasting mechanisms of defense against biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology 43:205-27.
  15. Gomez-Gomez, L.and Boller, T. (2002). Flagellin perception: a paradigm for innate immunity. Trends in Plant Science 7:251–256. 
  16. Gururani,M.(2012). Plant disease resistance genes: Current status and future direction. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 78:51-65.
  17. Howles, P., Lawrence, G., Finnegan, J., McFadden, H., Ayliffe, M., Dodds, P. and Ellis, J. (2005). Autoactive alleles of the flax L6rust resistance gene induce nonrace- specific rust resistance associated with the hypersensitive response. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction 18:570582.
  18. Ingle, R.A., Carstens, M. and Denby, K.J. (2006). PAMP recognition and the plant-pathogen arms race. BioEssays 28:880–889. 
  19. Iriti, M. and Faoro, F. (2007). Review of innate and specific immunity in plants and animals. Mycopathologia 164: 57-64.
  20. Jermstad, K.D., Sheppard, L.A., Kinloch, B.B., Delfino-Mix, A., Ersoz, E.S., Krutovsky, K.V. and Neale, D.B.(2006). Isolation of a full-length CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene analog candidate from sugar pine showing low nucleotide diversity. Tree Genetics and Genomes 2: 76-85.
  21. Jiang, H., Wang, C., Ping, L., Tian, D. and Yang, S. (2007). The pattern of LRR nucleotide variation in plant resistance genes. Plant Sciences173: 253-261.
  22. Johal, G .S. and Briggs,S.P.(1992). Reductase activity encoded by the HM1disease resistance gene in maize. Science 258:985-87.
  23. Jones, D.A. and Jones, J.D.G. (1997). The role of leucine-rich repeat proteins in plant defenses. Advances in Botanical Research including Advances in Plant Pathology 24:120-7.
  24. Jones, J.D., Dangl, J.L. (2006). The plant immune system. Nature 16:323-29.
  25. Joshi, R. and Nayak, S. (2011). Review Functional characterization and signal transduction ability of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat resistance genes in plants. Genetics and Molecular Research 10:2637-52.
  26. Kajava, A.W. (1998). Structural diversity of leucine-rich repeat proteins. Journal of MolecularBiology 277: 519-527.
  27. Kamal ,R., Gusain,Y.S., Kumar,V. and Sharma, A.K.(2015). Disease management through biological control agents: An eco–friendly and cost effective approach for sustainable agriculture. Agricultural Review 36:37-45.
  28. Kopp, E,and Medzhitov, R. Recognition of microbial infection by Toll-like receptors. Current Opinion Immunology 15:396-401.
  29. Liu, J.J. and Ekramoddoullah, A.K.M. (2003).Isolation, genetic variation and expression of TIRNBS-LRR resistance gene analogs from western white pine (Pinusmonticola Dougl. ex. D. Don.). MolecularGenetics and Genomics270: 432-441.
  30. Lukasik, E. and Takken, F.L. (2009).Standing strong, resistance proteins instigators of plant defense. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12: 427-36.
  31. Martin, G.B., Brommonschenke, S.H., Chunwongse, J., Frary, A., Ganal. M.W. and Spivey, R. (1993).Map-based cloning of a protein kinase gene conferring disease resistance in tomato. Science 26:1432e6.
  32. McHale, L., Tan, X., Koehl, P. and Michelmore, R.W. (2006). Plant NBS-LRR proteins: adaptable guards. Genome Biology 7: 212.
  33. Meyers, B.C., Kaushik, S., Nandety, R.S. (2005).Evolving disease resistance genes. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 8: 129-134.
  34. Nicaise, V., Roux, M. and Zipfel, C.(2009). Recent advances in PAMP-Triggered immunity against bacteria: pattern recognition receptors watch over and raise the alarm. Plant Physiology150: 1638–1647.
  35. Oakley, M.G. and Hollenbeck, J.J. (2001).The design of antiparallel coiled coils. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 11: 450-457.
  36. Porter, B., Paidi, M., Ming, R., Alam, M., Nishijima, W. and Zhu, Y. (2009). Genome-wide analysis of Carica papaya reveals a small NBS resistance gene family. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 6: 609-626.
  37. Pieterse, C.M., Reyes, A.L., Van wees, S.C.M.(2009). Networking by small molecule hormones in plant immunity. Nature chemical biology 5:308-316.
  38. Rairdan, G.J., and Moffett, P. (2006). Distinct domains in the ARC region of the potato resistance protein Rx mediate LRR binding and inhibition of activation. Plant Cell 18: 2082-2093.
  39. Rairdan, G.J., and Moffett, P. (2007). Brothers in arms Common and contrasting themes in pathogen perception by plant NB-LRR and animal NACHT-LRR proteins. Microbes and Infection 9: 677686.
  40. Rentel, M.C., Leonelli, L., Dahlbeck, D., Zhao, B. and Staskawicz, B.J. (2008). Recognition of the Hyaloperonosporaparasitica effector ATR13 triggers resistance against oomycete, bacterial, and viral pathogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 1091-1096.
  41. Rose, L.E., Bittner-Eddy, P.D., Langley, C.H., Holub, E.B., Michelmore, R.W., Beynon, J.L. (2004). The maintenance of extreme amino acid diversity at the disease resistance gene, RPP13, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 166:1517-1527.
  42. Satyapriya,P., Kalavani, A., and Arvinth,S.(2012). Application of plant lectin for biotic stress control in crop plants. Agricultural Reviews 33: 237-247.
  43. Shen, Q.H. and Schulze-Lefert, P. (2007). Rumble in the nuclear jungle: compartmentalization, trafûcking, and nuclear action of plant immune receptors. EMBO Journal 26: 4293–4301.
  44. Sigalov , A.B. (2010) . Protein intrinsic disorder and oligomericity in cell signaling. Molecular Biosystem 6 :451-61
  45. Song, W.Y., Wang, G.L., Chen, L.L., Kim, H.S., Pi, L.Y., Holsten, T., Gardner, J., Wang, B., (1995). A receptor kinase-like protein encoded by the rice disease resistance gene, Xa21. Science 270: 1804–6. 
  46. Swetha Priya, R. and Subramanian, R.B. (2008). Isolation and molecular analysis of R gene in resistant Zingiberofficinale (ginger) varieties against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiber. Bioresource Technology 99: 4540-4543.
  47. Takahashi, N., Takahashi, Y. and Putnam, F.W. (1985). The periodicity of leucine and tandem repetition of a 24-amino acid segment in the primary structure of leucine-rich á 2-glycoprotein of human serum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 82: 1906-1910.
  48. Takken, F.L.W., Albrecht, M. and Tameling, W.I.L. (2006). Resistance proteins: molecular switches of plant defense. Current Opinion on Plant Biology 9: 383-390.
  49. Tameling, W.I.L., Vossen, J.H., Albrecht, M., Lengauer, T., Berden, J.A., Haring, M.A., (2006). Mutations in the NBARC domain of I-2 that impair ATP hydrolysis cause autoactivation. PlantPhysiology 140: 1233-1245.
  50. Thomma, B.P., Nurnberger, T., and Joosten. M.H. (2011). Of PAMPs and effectors: the blurred PTI-ETI dichotomy. Plant Cell 23:4-15.
  51. Tian, Y., Fan, L., Thurau, T., Jung, C. and Cai, D. (2004). The absence of TIR-type resistance gene analogs in the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) genome. Journal of Molecular Evolution 58: 40-53.
  52. Tor, M., Lotze, M.T. and Holton, N. (2009).Receptor-mediated signaling in plants: molecular patterns and programmes, Journal of Experimental Botany 60: 3645–3654. 
  53. Uematsu, S. and Akira, S. (2006). PRRs in pathogen recognition. Central European Journal of Biology 1:299-313.
  54. Van der Biezen, E.A., Freddie, C.T., Kahn, K., Parker, J.E. and Jones, J.D.G. (2002). Arabidopsis RPP4 is a member of the RPP5 multigene family of TIR-NBLRR genes and confers downy mildew resistance through multiple signaling components. The Plant Journal 29: 439-451.
  55. Van der Biezen, E.A., and Jones, J.D.G. (1998).The NB-ARC domain: a novel signaling motif shared by plant resistance gene products and regulators of cell death in animals. Current Biology 8: 226-228.
  56. Vanderhoorn, R.A.L., DeWit, P.J.G.M. and Joosten, M.H.A.J. (2002). Balancing selection favors guarding resistance proteins. Trends in Plant Sciences7: 67-71.
  57. Vanderhoorn, R.A.L. and Kamoun,S.(2008).From guard to decoy: Anew model for perception of plant pathogen effectors. Plant Cell 20:2009-2017
  58. Zipfel, C., Kunze, G., Chinchilla, D., Caniard, A., Jones, J.D.G. and Boller, T. (2006). Perception of the bacterial PAMP EF-Tu by the receptor EFR restricts Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Cell 125:749–760.
  59. Zipfel, C. (2008). Pattern-recognition receptors in plant innate immunity. Current Opinion in Immunology 20:10-16.

Editorial Board

View all (0)