Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 42 issue 2 (june 2021) : 156-165

Implications of Tannin Containing Plants for Productivity and Health in Small Ruminant Animals: A Review

Emmanuel M. Atiba, Rutto K. Laban, Sun Zewei, Zhong Qingzhang, Natnael D. Aschalew
1Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, 2888 Xincheng Street, Changchun City, Jilin Province P.R. China. 
Cite article:- Atiba M. Emmanuel, Laban K. Rutto, Zewei Sun, Qingzhang Zhong, Aschalew D. Natnael (2021). Implications of Tannin Containing Plants for Productivity and Health in Small Ruminant Animals: A Review. Agricultural Reviews. 42(2): 156-165. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-173.
Infection with parasitic nematodes is a serious threat to health and production of small ruminant worldwide. It causes reduction in feed intake, weight gain and eventually death of the host. The primary control method of the nematode infection relied on frequent use of anthelmintic drugs. Unfortunately, this control strategy is no longer effective due to widespread anthelmintic resistance, which necessitates search for novel approaches to control nematodes. Condensed tannin (CT) containing forages have been used as anthelmintic to control parasitic nematodes for years. This paper reviews available information about effects of CT on productivity and health of small ruminants infected with parasitic nematodes. Many of temperate and tropical forages are nutraceutical plants (possess both nutritional and health benefits). Consumption of CT containing forages reduced negative impacts of gastrointestinal parasitism in sheep and goat by regulating establishment of worm as shown in reduced worm burdens, fecal egg count (FEC) and worm fecundity. Parasitized sheep and goats fed forages containing CT had high feed intake and body weight gain, probably due to increase in protein and amino acids supply. Condensed tannins containing feeds result in lighter meat color and tend to improve antioxidant activity. Therefore, the use of CT containing forages to control parasitic nematodes and improve production of small ruminants is one the alternatives to anthelmintic drugs.  
  1. Abo-donia, F., Yang, L.Y., Hristov, A.N., Wang, M., Tang, S.X., Zhou, C.S., Han., X.F., Kang, J.H., Tan, Z.L., He, Z.X. (2017). Effects of tannins on the fatty acid profiles of rumen fluids and milk from lactating goats fed a total mixed ration containing rapeseed oil. Livestock Science. 204: 16-24. doi: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.002.
  2. Acamovic, T. Brooker, J. D. (2005). Biochemistry of plant secondary metabolites and their effects in animals. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 64(03): pp. 403-412. doi: 10.1079/PNS2005449.
  3. Addisu, S. (2016). Effect of Dietary Tannin Source Feeds on Ruminal Fermentation and Production of Cattle; a Review: Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research. 6(2): 45-56. Cn
  4. Alba-Hurtado, F., Muñoz-Guzmán, M.A. (2013). Immune responses associated with resistance to haemonchosis in sheep. BioMed Research International. 2013. doi: 10.1155/2013/162158.
  5. Amin, M.R., Mostofa, M., Islam, M.N., Asgar, M.A. (2011). Effects of neem, betel leaf, devil’s tree, jute and turmeric against gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University. 8(2): 259-263. doi: 10.3329/jbau.v8i2.7935.
  6. Amit, M., Cohen, I., Marcovics, A., Muklada, H., Glasser, T.A., Ungar, E.D., Landau, S.Y. (2013). Self-medication with tannin-rich browse in goats infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes. Veterinary Parasitology. Elsevier B.V., 198(3-4), pp. 305-311. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.09.019.
  7. Arroyo-Lopez, C., Manolaraki, F., Saratsis, A., Saratsi, K., Stefanakis, A., Skampardonis, V., Voutzourakis, N. (2014). Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasite. 21(71): 1-9. doi: 10.1051/parasite/2014074.
  8. Athanasiadou, S., Kyriazakis, I., Jackson, F., Coop, R.L. (2001). Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo studies. Veterinary Parasitology. 99: 205-219.
  9. Atiba, E.M., Sayre, B., Temu, V.W. (2016). Effects of dietary protein supplementation on the performance and non-carcass components of goats artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus. Science Letter. 4(2): 124-130.
  10. Azuhnwi, B.N., Hertzberg, H., Arrigo, Y., Gutzwiller, A., Hess, H.D., Mueller-Harvey, I., Torgerson, P.R., Kreuzer, M., Dohme-Meier, F. (2013). Investigation of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) cultivar differences on nitrogen balance and fecal egg count in artificially infected lambs1. Journal of Animal Science. 91(5): 2343-2354. doi: 10.2527/jas.2012-5351.
  11. Bachaya, H. A., Iqbal, Z., Khan, M.N., Sindhu, Z., Jabbar, A. (2009). Anthelmintic activity of Ziziphus nummularia (bark) and Acacia nilotica (fruit) against Trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 123(2): 325-329. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.02.043.
  12. Brito, D.R.B., Costa-Júnior, L.M., Gracia, J.L., Torres-Acosta, J.F.J., Louvandini, H., Cutrim-Júnior, J.A.A., Araújo, J.F.M., Soares, E.D.S. (2018). Supplementation with dry Mimosa caesalpiniifolia leaves can reduce the Haemonchus contortus worm burden of goats. Veterinary Parasitology. Elsevier, 252: 47-51. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.01.014.
  13. Campione, A., Natalehho, A., Valenti, B., Luciano, G., Rufino-Moya, P.J., Avondo, M., Morbidini, L., Pomente, C., Krol, B., Wilk, M., Migdal, P., Pauselli, M. (2020). Effect of feeding hazelnut skin on animal performance, milk quality and rumen fatty acids in lactating ewes. Animals. 10(4): 1-16. doi: 10.3390/ani10040588.
  14. Coles, G.C., Jackson, F., Pomroy, W.E., Prichard, R.K., vonSamson- Himmelstjerna, G., Silvestre, A., Taylor, M.A., Vercruysse, J. (2006). The detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Veterinary Parasitology. 136: 167-185. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2005.11.019.
  15. García, E.M., López, A., Zimerman, M., Hernández, O., Arroguy, J.I. (2019). Enhanced oxidative stability of meat by including tannin-rich leaves of woody plants in goat diet. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 32(9): 1439-1447. doi: 10.5713/ajas.18.0537.
  16. Gradé, J.T., Arble, B.L., Weladji, R.B., Van Damme, P. (2008). Anthelmintic efficacy and dose determination of Albizia anthelmintica against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected Ugandan sheep. Veterinary Parasitology. 157(3-4): 267-274. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.07.021.
  17. Heckendorn, F., Häring, D. A., Maurer, V., Senn, M., Hertzberg, H. (2007). Individual administration of three tanniferous forage plants to lambs artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia curticei. Veterinary Parasitoloy. 146: 123-134. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.01.009.
  18. Hoste, H., Jackson, F., Athanasiadou, S., Thamsborg, S.M., Hoskin, S.O. (2006). The effects of tannin-rich plants on parasitic nematodes in ruminants. Trends in Parasitology. 22(6): 253-261. doi: 10.1016/
  19. Hoste, H., Martinez-Ortiz-De-Montellano, C., Manolaraki, F., Brunet, S., Ojeda-Robertos, N., Fourquaux, I., Torres-Acosta, J.F.J., Sandoval-Castro, C.A. (2012). Direct and indirect effects of bioactive tannin-rich tropical and temperate legumes against nematode infections. Veterinary Parasitology. Elsevier B.V. 186(1-2): 18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar. 2011.11.042.
  20. Hoste, H., Torres-Acosta, J.F.J., Sandoval-Castro, C.A., Mueller-Harvey, I., Sotiraki, S., Louvandini, H., Thamsborg, S.M., Terrill, T.T. (2015). Tannin containing legumes as a model for nutraceuticals a)gainst digestive parasites in livestock. Veterinary Parasitology. Elsevier B.V. 212(1-2): 5-17. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.06.026.
  21. Houdijk, J.G.M. (2012). Differential effects of protein and energy scarcity on resistance to nematode parasites. Small Ruminant Research. Elsevier B.V. 103(1): 41-49. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.10.017.
  22. Huang, Q., Liu, X., Zhao, G., Hu, T., Wang, Y. (2017). Potential and challenges of tannins as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics for farm animal production. Animal Nutrition. Elsevier Taiwan, xxx: 1-14. LLC. doi: 10.1016/j.aninu.2017.09.004.
  23. Iqbal, Z., Sarwar, M., Jabbar, A., Ahmed, S., Nisa, M., Sajid, M.S., Khan, M.N., Mutfi, K.A., Yaseen, M. (2007). Direct and indirect anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins in sheep. Veterinary Parasitology. 144(1-2): 125-131. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.09.035.
  24. Joshi, B. R., Kommuru, D.S., Terrill, T.H., Mosjidis, J.A., Burke, J.M., Shakya, K.P., Miller, J.E. (2011). Effect of feeding Sericea lespedeza leaf meal in goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary Parasitology. Elsevier B.V., 178(1-2): 192-197. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar. 2010.12.017.
  25. Kahiya, C., Mukaratirwa, S., Thamsborg, S.M. (2003). Effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia karoo diets on Haemonchus contortus infection in goats. Veterinary Parasitology. 115(3): 265-274. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4017(03)00213-9.
  26. Kaplan, R.M., Vidyashankar, A.N. (2012). An inconvenient truth/ : Global worming and anthelmintic resistance. Veterinary Parasitology. Elsevier B.V. 186(1-2): 70-78. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.11.048.
  27. Keles, G., Yildiz-akgul, F., Kocaman, V. (2017). Performance and milk composition of dairy goats as affected by the dietary level of stoned olive cake silages. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science. 30(3): 363-369.
  28. Knox, M. R., Torres-Acosta, J. F. J., Aguilar-Caballero, A.J. (2006). Exploiting the effect of dietary supplementation of small ruminants on resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematodes. Veterinary Parasitology. 139(4): 385-393. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.04.026.
  29. Kushwaha, R., Rai, S.N., Singh, A.K., Chandra, G., Vaidya, M.M., Sharma, V.K., Pathan, M.M., Kumar, S. (2011). Tanninerous feed resources in dairy: Review. Agricultural Reviews. 32(4): 267-275.
  30. Lisonbee, L. D., Villalba, J.J., Provenza, F.D., Hall, J.O. (2009). Tannins and self-medication: Implications for sustainable parasite control in herbivores. Behavioural Processes. 82(2): 184-189. doi: 10.1016/j.beproc.2009.06.009.
  31. Lopes, S.G., Barros, L.B.G., Louvandini, H., Abdalla, A.L., Costa Junoir, L.M. (2016). Effect of tanniniferous food from Bauhinia pulchella on pasture contamination with gastrointestinal nematodes from goats. Parasites and Vectors. 9(1): 3-9. doi: 10.1186/s13071-016-1370-3.
  32. Marume, U., Chimonyo, M., Dzama, K. (2012). Influence of dietary supplementation with Acacia karroo on experimental haemonchosis in indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats of South Africa. Livestock Science. Elsevier B.V. 144(1-2): 132-139. doi: 10.1016/j.livsci.2011.11.007.
  33. Max, R.A., Kimambo, A.E., Kassuku, A.A., Mtenga, L.A., Buttery, P.J. (2007). Effect of tanniniferous browse meal on nematode faecal egg counts and internal parasite burdens in sheep and goats. South African Journal of Animal Sciences. 37(2): 97-106. doi: 10.4314/sajas.v37i2.4033.
  34. Mcmahon, L.R., McAllister, T.A., Berg, B.P., Majak, W., Acharya, S.N., Popp, J.D., Coulman, B.E., Wang, Y., Chang, K.J. (2011). A review of the effects of forage condensed tannins on ruminal fermentation and bloat in grazing cattle. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 80(3): 469-485. doi: 10.4141/p99-050.
  35. Merera, C., Ayana, T., Gudeta, T. (2013). Effect of feeding Leucaena pallida with concentrate and antihelmentic treatment on growth performance and nematode parasite infestation of Horro ewe lambs in Ethiopia. International Journal of Livestock Production. 4(10): 155-160. doi: 10.5897/IJLP2013.0176.
  36. Min, B.R., Barry, T.N., Attwood, G.T., McNabb, W.C. (2003). The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 106(1-4): 3-19. doi: 10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00041-5.
  37. Min, B.R., Hart, S.P. (2003). Tannins for suppression of internal parasites. Journal of Animal Science. 81(2): 102-109. doi: /2003.8114_suppl_2E102x.
  38. Min, B.R., Wilson, E.A., Solaiman, S., Miller, J. (2015). Effects of condensed tannin-rich pine bark diet on experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus in meat goats. International Journal of Veterinary Health Science and Research. 3(3): 49-57. doi: 10.19070/2332-2748-1500013.
  39. Minhoi, A.P., Filippsen, L.F., do Amarante, A.F.T., Abdalla, A.L. (2010). Efficacy of condensed tannin presents in acacia extract on the control of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep. Ciencia Rural, Santa Maria. 40(6): 1360-1365. doi: 10.1590/S0103-84782010005000088.
  40. Moore, D.A., Terrill, T.H., Kouakou, B., Shaik, S.A., Mosjidis, J.A., Miller, J.E., Vanguru, M., Kannan, G., Burke, J.M. (2008). The effects of feeding Sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Journal of Animal Science. 86(9): 2328-2337. doi: 10.2527/jas.2007-0411.
  41. Morales, R., Ungerfeld, E.M. (2015). Use of tannins to improve fatty acids profile of meat and milk quality in ruminants: A review: Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. 75: 239-248. doi: 10.4067/S0718-58392015000200014.
  42. Moreno-Gonzalo, J., Ferre, I., Celaya, R., Frutos, P., Ferreira, L.M.M., Hervás, G., Gracía, U., Ortega-Mora, L.M., Osoro, K. (2012). Potential use of heather to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats. Small Ruminant Research. 103(1): 60-68. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.10.019.
  43. Mueller-Harvey, I., Bee, G., Dohme-Meier, F., Hoste, H., Karonen, M., Kölliker, R., Lüscher, A., Niderkorn, V., et al. (2019). Benefits of condensed tannins in forage legumes fed to ruminants: Importance of structure, concentration and diet composition. Crop Science. 59(3): 861-885. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2017.06.0369.
  44. Nnadi, P. A., Kamalu, T. N., Onah, D. N. (2009). The effect of dietary protein on the productivity of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats infected with Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary Parasitology. 161(3-4): 232-238. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar. 2009.01.014.
  45. Osoro, K., Benit-Peña, A., Frutos, P., Garc, U., Ortega-Mora, L.M., Celaya, R., Ferre, I. (2007). The effect of heather supplementation on gastrointestinal nematode infections and performance in Cashmere and local Celtiberic goats on pasture. Small Ruminant Research. 67: 184-191. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.09.032.
  46. Paolini, V., Bergeaud, J.P., Grisez, C., Prevot, F., Dorchies, Ph., Hoste, H. (2003). Effects of condensed tannins on goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary Parasitology. 113(3-4): 253-261. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4017(03)00064-5.
  47. Paswan, J.K., Kumar, K., Kumar, S., Chandramoni, Kumar A., Kumar, D., Kumar, A. (2016). Effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and fecal egg count in goats. Veterianry World. 1400-1406. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1400-1406.
  48. Pathak, A.K. (2013a). Potential of using condensed tannins to control gastrointestinal nematodes and improve small ruminant performance. International Journal of Molecular Veterinary Research. 3(8): 36-50. doi: 10.5376/ijmvr. 2013.03.0008.
  49. Pathak, A.K., Dutta, N., Banerjee, P.S., Pattanaik, A.K., Sharma, K. (2013b). Influence of dietary supplementation of condensed tannins through leaf meal mixture on intake, nutrient utilization and performance of Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 26(10): 1446-1458. doi: 10.5713/ajas. 2013.13066.
  50. Pathak, A. K., Dutta, N., Banerjee, P.S., Goswami, T.K., Sharma, K. (2016). Effect of condensed tannins supplementation through leaf meal mixture on voluntary feed intake, immune response and worm burden in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Journal of Parasitic Diseases. Springer India. 40(1): 100-105. doi: 10.1007/s12639-014-0455-1.
  51. Poppi, D.P., Sykes, A.R., Dynes, R.A. (1990). The effect of endoparasitism on host nutrition - the implications for nutrient manipulation. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. 50: 237-243. doi: 10.1079/BJN19660078.
  52. Priolo, A., Vasta, V., Fasone, V., Lanza, C.M., Scerra, M., Biondi, L., Bella, M., Whittington, F.M. (2009). Meat odour and flavour and indoles concentration in ruminal fluid and adipose tissue of lambs fed green herbage or concentrates with or without tannins. Animal. 3(3): 454-460. doi: 10.1017/S1751731108003662.
  53. Raju, J., Sahoo, B., Chandrakar, A., Sankar, M., Garg, A.K., Sharma, A.K., Pandey, A.B. (2015). Effect of feeding oak leaves (Quercus semecarpifolia vs Quercus leucotricophora) on nutrient utilization, growth performance and gastrointestinal nematodes of goats in temperate sub Himalayas. Small Ruminant Research. Elsevier B.V., 125: 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2014.12.013.
  54. Rinaldi, L., Amadesi, A., Dufourd, E., Bosco, A., Gadanho, M., Lehebel, A., Maurelli, M.P., Chauvin, A., Charlier, J., Cringoli, G., Ravinet, N., Chartier, C. (2019). Rapid assessment of faecal egg count and faecal egg count reduction through composite sampling in cattle. Parasites and Vectors. BioMed Central. 12(1): 1-8. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3601-x.
  55. Ríos-De-Álvarez, L.ÿ Greer, A.W., Jackson, F., Athanasiadou, S., Kyriazakis, I., Huntley, J.F. (2008). The effect of dietary sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on local cellular responses to Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep. Parasitoloy. 135: 1117-1124. doi: 10.1017/S0031182008004563.
  56. Romero, J.J., Zarate, M.A., Ogunade, I.M., Arriola, K.G., Adesogan, A.T. (2018). Tropical plant supplementation effects on the performance and parasite burden of goats. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science. 31(2): 208-217.
  57. Sampaio, B.L., Bara, M.T.F., Ferri, P.H., da Costa Santa, S., de Paula, J.R. (2011). Influence of environmental factors on the concentration of phenolic compounds in leaves of Lafoensia pacari. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy. 21(6): 1127-1137. doi: 10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000177.
  58. Saric, T., Rogosic, J., Zupan, I., Beck, R., Bosnic, R., Sikic, Z., Skobic, D., Tkalcic, S. (2015). Anthelmintic effect of three tannin-rich Mediterranean shrubs in naturally infected sheep. Small Ruminant Research. Elsevier B.V. 123(1): 179-182. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2014.11.012.
  59. Seng, S., Waller, P.J., Ledin, I., Höglund, J. (2007). The effects of short-term feeding of fresh cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage on gastrointestinal nematode parasite infections in goats in Cambodia. Tropical Biomedicine. 24(1): 47-54.
  60. Singh, S., Pathak, A.K., Khan, M., Sharma, R.K. (2016). Effect of tanniferous leaf meal mixture based multi nutrient blocks on nutrient utilization and biochemical profile of Haemonchus contortus infected goats. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 50(5): 725-732. doi: 10.18805/ijar.5716.
  61. Sinnathamby, G., Henderson, G., Umair, S., Janssen, P., Bland, R., Simpson, H. (2018). The bacterial community associated with the sheep gastrointestinal nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. PLoS ONE. 13(2): e0192164. https://doi.0rg/10.1371/journal.pone.0192164.
  62. Sokerya, S., Waller, P.J., Try, P., Höglund, J. (2009). The effect of long-term feeding of fresh and ensiled cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage on gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 41(2): 251-258. doi: 10.1007/s11250-008-9182-x.
  63. Terefe, G., Yacob, H.T., Grisez, C., Prevot, F., Dumas, E., Bergeaud, J.P., Dorchies. Ph., Hoste, H., Jacquiet, P. (2005). Haemonchus contortus egg excretion and female length reduction in sheep previously infected with Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae. Veterinary Parasitology. 128(3-4): 271-283. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.11.036.
  64. Torres-Acosta, J.F.J., Sandoval-Castro, C.A., Hoste, H., Aguilar-Caballero, A.J., Cámara-Sarmiento, R., Alonso-Díaz, M.A. (2012). Nutritional manipulation of sheep and goats for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes under hot humid and subhumid tropical conditions. Small Ruminant Research. Elsevier B.V. 103(1): 28-40. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.10.016.
  65. van Zyl, E.A., Botha, F.S., Eloff, K.J.N., Msuntsha, P.P., Oosthuizen, P.A., Stevens, C. (2017). The use of Lespedeza cuneata for natural control of gastrointestinal nematodes in Merino sheep. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 84(1): 1-7. doi: 10.4102/ojvr.v84i1.1259.
  66. Vasta, V., Nudda, A., Cannas, A., Lanza, M., Priolo, A. (2008). Alternative feed resources and their effects on the quality of meat and milk from small ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 147: 223-246. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.09.020.
  67. Villalba, J.J., Miller, J., Hall, J.O., Clemensen, A.K., Stott, R., Snyder, D., Provenza, F.D. (2013). Preference for tanniferous (Onobrychis viciifolia) and non-tanniferous (Astragalus cicer) forage plants by sheep in response to challenge infection with Haemonchus contortus. Small Ruminant Research. Elsevier B.V., 112(1-3): 199-207. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2012.11.033.
  68. Villalba, J.J., Miller, J., Ungar, E.D., Landau, S.Y., Glendinning, J. (2014). Ruminant self-medication against gastrointestinal nematodes/ : evidence, mechanism and origins. Parasite. 21(31). doi: 10.1051/parasite/2014032.
  69. Zabré, G., Kabore, A., Bayala, B., Katiki, L.M., Costa-Júnior, L.M., Tamboura, H.H., Belem, A.M.G., Abdalla, A.L., Niderkorn, V., Hoste, H., Louvandini, H. (2017). Comparison of the in vitro anthelmintic effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia raddiana. Parasite. 24 (44). doi: 10.1051/parasite/2017044.
  70. Zhong, R.Z., Li, H.Y., Fang, Y., Sun, H.X., Zhou, D.W. (2015). Effects of dietary supplementation with green tea polyphenols on digestion and meat quality in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus. Meat Science. 105: 1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.02.003. 

Editorial Board

View all (0)