Agricultural Reviews

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Agricultural Reviews, volume 38 issue 1 (march 2017) : 29-40

Strategies for improving nitrogen use efficiency: A review

M.R. Yadav1*, Rakesh Kumar1, C.M. Parihar3, R.K. Yadav2, S.L. Jat3, H. Ram1, R.K.Meena1, M. Singh1, Birbal4, A. P. Verma1, U. Kumar1, Ashish Ghosh, M.L. Jat5
1<p>ICAR- National Dairy Research Institute,&nbsp;Karnal-132 001, India.</p>
Cite article:- Yadav1* M.R., Kumar1 Rakesh, Parihar3 C.M., Yadav2 R.K., Jat3 S.L., Ram1 H., R.K.Meena1, Singh1 M., Birbal4, Verma1 P. A., Kumar1 U., Ghosh Ashish, Jat5 M.L. (2017). Strategies for improving nitrogen use efficiency: A review . Agricultural Reviews. 38(1): 29-40. doi: 10.18805/ag.v0iOF.7306.

Nitrogen (N) is the most critical externally added input for any crop production system. The half of the global population directly or indirectly depends on nitrogenous fertilizers for food supply. Today, Rice, wheat, and maize are consuming more than 90% of total nitrogenous fertilizer used in cereals. Underuse of nitrogen is associated with lower crop production while overuse leads to several soil and environmental related consequences. Therefore, response to applied nitrogen and its use efficiency have to be monitored properly for obtaining the maximum potential and sustainable yield. Efficiency of applied nitrogenous fertilizers is very low due to its various losses i.e. volatilization, leaching, surface runoff and denitrification from soil-plant system. Therefore, the proper understanding of advanced soil and plant management practices which helps in enhancement of nitrogen recovery efficiency is one of the key factors to enhance crop output, decreasing cost of cultivation, and to maintain environmental quality which ultimately adds towards the goal of achieving long term sustainable production system. In this review, an attempt has been made summarize the locally as well as scientific soil and crop management technologies used for improving use efficiency of applied N. This paper also discusses nitrogen cycling in soil-plant systems, various N losses pathways, present status and most possible management options at the farm level for enhancing nitrogen use in crop production system.

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