Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 37 issue 1 (march 2016) : 72-76

Ruminant and environment: A review

S.R. Lahoti*, N.S. Rathi1, S.R. Chole2
1<p>Department of &nbsp;Dairy Science, Yogeshwari Science College, Ambajogai-431 517, India.</p>
Cite article:- Lahoti* S.R., Rathi1 N.S., Chole2 S.R. (NaN). Ruminant and environment: A review . Agricultural Reviews. 37(1): 72-76. doi: 10.18805/ar.v37i1.9268.

Major green house gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide which are emitted directly and indirectly by ruminants. More than 80 per cent methane is normally produced during enteric fermentation. Methane has the second largest contributor to the green house effect and has 23 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. The Indian contribution of methane from all sources is around 12 per cent of total world production, in which mostly by emission by ruminants. India possesses largest ruminant population. An effort is made to mitigate the methane production in the ruminants. Nutritional management  like good quality feed, use of higher concentrates, supplementing cattle diets with urea molasses block licks, fiber palletisation, breeding management like AI., ETT, In vitro fertilization which improves genetics and reproductive efficiency can also improve production efficiency which reduces green house gas emission.

  1. Adam, D. (2000), How much brown cow? AD / nsu/ 000907 / 000907—6.html..

  2. Blaxter (1967), The energy metabolism of ruminants. Hutchinson and Co. LTD. London U.K. Pp 332

  3. Bird S.H. (1989),Role of protozoa in the rumen. In.Proc Indo Australian Seminar on improving straw utilization on buffaloes for growth and production pp 36-45

  4. Calsamiglia S, Busquet,M. Cardozo, P.W. Castillejos, L and Ferret, A (2007) Invited review, Essential oil as modifier of rumen microbial fermentation. J. Dairy Sci, 90: 2580-2595.

  5. Chaudhary U.B., Gupta, R, Sikka, P, Sengar,S.S. and Mudgal V.D. (1988), Climate population in growing buffalo heifer fed on urea treated wheat straw based diet. Proc II world buffalo congress, ICAR New Delhi Vol. I, pp 203. 

  6. Coleman G. S. (1980), The role of rumen protozoa in the metabolism of ruminants given tropical feed. Trop Anim Prod 1980; 4:199-213.

  7. Das A. and Singh G.P. (1999) Effect of different proportion of berseem and wheat straw on in Vitro dry matter digestibility and total gas production. Indian J. of Animal Nutrition 16:60-64.

  8. EPA (1994), International Antropogenic methane emission estimates for 1990 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington D.C. PP. 230.

  9. Frumholtz, P. P., Newbold, C. J., Wallac,e R.J.,(1989) . Influence of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on the fermentation of basal ration in the rumen simulation technique (rusitec) J. Agric Sci (camb):113:169-172

  10. Hess H.D, Kreuzer M., Diaz P.F.,Solinac R.,and Machmullaon A. (2001) Supplementation of feed with raporium containing fruits to reduce methane emission from ruminal fermentation n vitro. website :

  11. Hogan, K.B.(1993), Anthropogenic methane emission in the U.S.: Estimate for 1990 report to congress (EPA Report No. 430-R-93-003). Washington DC. United State Environmental Protection Agency office of Air and Radiation.

  12. IPCC (2007), Climate change 2007, The physical Science Basis Contribution of working group 1 ti the 4th Assessment Report of the inter – government panel on climate change.

  13. IPCC (1996) Report of 12th intergovernmental panel on climate change, Mexico City 11-13-Sept. 

  14. Kamel C and Greathead H. (2007), Garlic and cinnamon for a healthy working rumen. Feed Mix 15:11-14.

  15. Kirchgessner M,, Windisch W and Mullar H.L., (1995) Nutritional factors for the qualification of methane production (Eds) Von Engethardt W, Leonherd S, Giereke manke D. Ruminants physiology, digestion, metabolism, growth, and production. Proceeding of 8th international symposium on ruminant physiology. Delamar publishers Albany Germany P.P. 333-340.

  16. Leng R.A (1991) Improving ruminant production and reducing methane emission from ruminants by strategic supplementation. United state Environmental protection agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Washington (D.C.):105

  17. Lopez S, McIntosh, F.M., Wallace, R.J., and Newbold, C.J., (1999) Effect of adding Acetogenic bacteria on methane production by mixed rumen micro-organism, Ani. Feed Sci. Technology 78:1-9.

  18. McAllister T.A, Okine E.K., Mathison G.W., and Cheeng K.J.. (1996), Diatary environment and microbiological aspects of methane production in ruminants. Canadian J. Anim. Sci. 76:231-243

  19. Mangurkar B.R. (2006) Livestock and our environment : A review in Indian Context Indian Dairy man 58: 53-60.

  20. Mangurkar B. R. (2001) Livestock environment interaction in mixed farming system. Indian Dairy Man Vol.43.

  21. Mangurkar B.R. (2005) Livestock and Environment Indian Dairy Industry, Annual Dairy Resource book Vol 1. Dr Chawla Dairy Information centre Pvt. Ltd Delhi P.P. 171-172.

  22. Mishra A.K. and D.K. Mandal 2010, Climate change and the Indian bovine. Indian Dairy Man -62: 80-89.

  23. Mudgal V.D., Singhal, K.K.,and Sharma, D.D., (2003) Advances in dairy animal production (second edition ) International Book Distributing Co. Lucknow 34:447-57.

  24. Mutsvangwa T., Edward, I. E.,Topps, J.H., Paterson. G.F.M., (1992), The effect of diatary inclusion of yeast culture (yea sacc) on pattern of rumen fermentation,food intake, and growth intensity of bull. Anim Prod.:55: 35-40. 

  25. Neumeier C. J. and F.M.Mitlochner (2013) Cattle biotechnologies reduce environmental impact and help feed a growing planet. Animal frontiers 3 (3) (A report from Agro One sakal pune daily news bulletin 6 July 2013)

  26. Pal, D., Karma D. N. Pathak,.N. and Singh, R. (1994), Effect of protozoa in the rumen and protein level in diet on nutrients utilization and performance of crossbreed calves. Intern. J. Anmi. Sci. 9:289-292.

  27. Patra A.K, Karma D.N., and Agarwal, N.,(2006), Effect on plant extract on in vitro methanogenesis enzyme activities and fermentation of feed in the rumen liquor of buffalo. Ani. Feed Sci Technology 128:276-291.

  28. Raghubansi A.S. and Singh J.S. (1991) Increasing atmospheric abundance of a dietaryly active tree grasses causes and consequences. Trop. Ecology 32:1-23.

  29. Singh Rajendra and Dangi K.S. (2013) Management practices for reducing green house gases in livestock rearing. Indian Dairy Man 65: 68-73

  30. Singh S.V., Upadyaya R.C., and Ashutosh (2011) Climate change : Impact on animal performance and mitigation Strategies. Indian Dairy Man 63: 50-56

  31. Singh G.P. (1997) Effect of greenhouse gases on climate change and Indian ruminants livestock. Current science 72:441-446.

  32. Singh Jaswinder, Verma H.K., and Sikka S.S. (2010),Green cow, clean environment. Indian Dairy Man 62: 44-52

  33. Singh G.P. 1998, Final report of A.P,Cess funded project , Methiogenesis and production of green gases under animal husbandary system. N.D. R.I.Kernal.

  34. Singh G.H. (1999), In Proc IX Animal Nutrition Conference, Hydrabad PP 149-152.

  35. Singh G.P. and Mohini M. (1999), Effect of different levels of berseem on invitro digestibility and methane production in crossbred cattle fed wheat straw diets. Indian J. Dairy and Bio Science 10:14-19.

  36. Torrent J and Johnson D.E. (1994) Methane production in the large intestine of sheep, in energy metabolism of farm animals. ( Ed. J.F.Aguilera) pp 391-394.

  37. Tyangi A.K. and Singhal K.K (1999) Effect of mustard oil and glucosinolate on rumen fermentation. Indian J. Ani-nutri 16:12-17.

  38. Upadyaya R.C., Singh S.V., and Ashutosh. (2008) Impact of climate change on livestock Indian Dairy Man 60: 98-102.

  39. Willium W.F.,Hoermicke N,Waldo D.R.,Flatt W.P., and Allison M.j. (1963) Ruminal carbonate as a precursor of emited methane and carbondioxide J. Dairy Sci 46:992-997.

  40. Wolin M..J., Miller, T.L., and Stewart, C.S.,(1997) Microbe-microbe interaction in the rumen microbial Ecosystem. (Chapman and Hall London.), Pp 467-488.

Editorial Board

View all (0)