Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 35 issue 2 (june 2014) : 79-91


M. Vijayakumar, C. Jayanthi, R. Kalpana*, D. Ravisankar
1Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641 003, India
Cite article:- Vijayakumar M., Jayanthi C., Kalpana* R., Ravisankar D. (2024). INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT IN SORGHUM [SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH] – A REVIEW. Agricultural Reviews. 35(2): 79-91. doi: 10.5958/0976-0741.2014.00085.3.
Sorghum is affected by weeds and the loss due to weeds account for 33 per cent of the potential production and 30 to 45 per cent of the plant nutrients from the soil. Traditional hand weeding is the most efficient and widely adopted practice of weed management but it is labour intensive, time consuming and not economical due to high wage rates. Mechanical equipment can be time saving during peak operation, resulting in higher output per worker and reduction in the cost of weeding. Chemical weed control is a better supplement to conventional method however the weed emergence pattern, application timing and stage of crop are important in chemical control. Continuous use of herbicides over a prolonged time leads to development of resistance in weeds making them difficult to control. Integrated weed management (IWM), the process of combining several single management strategies together to suppress weeds has been developed. Hence, various components of integrated weed management are to be blended in a systematic way to achieve the acceptable level of weed control. So there is a need to review different weed management techniques in sorghum, which should be efficient, cost effective and environmentally safe. Keeping these facts in view, a comprehensive review on different integrated weed management practices has been attempted.
  1. Agrawal, H.P., Surendra, J. Sharma, G. Bison R.K. and Choure N.K. (2007). Integrated weed control in line sown upland paddy. Adv. Pl. Sci., 20: pp.185-186.
  2. Ahmad, A., Cheema Z.A. and Ahmad R. (2000). Evaluation of sorgaab as natural weed inhibitor in maize. J. Ani. and Pl. Sci.,.,10: pp. 141-146.
  3. Akobundu, I.O., (1987). Weed Science in the Tropics: Principles and Practices. A Wiley-Interscience Publication, Chichester.
  4. Andres, A. Concenco, G. Schwanke, A. M. L. Theisen, G. and Melo, P. T. B. S.(2009). Periods of weed interference in sorghum grown under lowland conditions. Planta Daninha. 27: pp. 229-234. 19.
  5. Arya, D.R., Kapoor R.D. and Dhiraj Pant. (2008). Herbicide tolerant crops: A boon to Indian Agriculture. In: Biennial Conference on Weed Management in Modern Agriculture: Emerging Challenges and Opportunities. 27-28 February. Organized by ISWS, NRCWS, Jabalpur (M.P) and Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa (Bihar). pp. 23-27.
  6. Baker and Terry. (1991). In: Tropical grassy weeds. Chemical control of grassy weeds (Collins, Sc. (ed)). CAB Internal .73-84.
  7. Balasubramanian, R. and Veerabadran V. (1998). Continuous application of same herbicides on weeds and grain yield of lowland rice. Pestology. (1): 26-28.
  8. Balyan, R.S., Malik R.K. and Dhanker R.S.(1994). Atrazine as post emergence herbicide for weed control in maize (Zea mays). Indian J. Weed Sci., 26: 35-39.
  9. Brar, L.S. and Walia, U.S. (1991). Some problematic weeds and their management. Indian J. Weed Sci., 23: 36·39. Budhar, M.N and N.Tamilselvan,(2004).Chemical weed control in sorghum intercropping system under rainfed Condition. Madras Agric. J. 91:314-315
  10. Capel, P.D. and Larson S.J. (2001). Effect of scale on the behaviour of atrazine in surface water. . Envir. Sci & Tech., 35: 648-657.
  11. Chinnusamy, C., Kandasamy, O.S. Sathyamorthi K. and Chandrasekhar C.N. (2000). Weed seed dynamics and productivity of maize as influenced by preparatory tillage and weed management methods. Abstr., National Seminar on the Sustainability of Weed Control Options for the New Milliennium. Annamalai University. Department of Agronomy. Annamalai Nagar. Tamil Nadu. Dec 20-21.31.
  12. Chivinge, O.A. (1990). Weed science technological needs for the communal areas of Zimbabwe. Zambezia, 17: 133-143.
  13. Davies, D.H.K. and Welsh J.P. (2002). Weed control in organic cereals and pulses, in Younie, D.; Taylor, B.R.; Welch, J.M. and Wilkinson, J.M. Eds. Organic cereals and pulses. Papers presented at conference held at the Heriot- Watt university, Edinburgh and at Cranfield university silsoe campus, Bedfordshire, 6 and 9 November 2001, chapter 5, Page 77-114. Chalcombe publications.
  14. Desta, K. (2000). Weed control methods used in Ethiopia. Animal power for weed control pp. 250-251. http://
  15. Dimitrova, T.S. (2005). Influence of the weeds and their control on grain sorghum productivity. Bulgarian J. Agric., Sci., 11: 4,483-488.
  16. Dubey, M.P., Sharma R.S. and Khare J.P. (1996). Integrated weed management in soybean (Glysine max). Indian J. Agron., 41: 69-73.
  17. Duraisamy, V.M and A. Tajuddin. (1999). Rotary weeder for mechanical interculturing in sugarcane. Agro India. 31 : 48.
  18. Emechebe, A.M., Ellis Jones, J., Schulz, S., Chikoye, D., Douthwaite, B., Kureh, I., Tarawali, G., Hussaini, M.A., Kormawa, P. and Sanni, A., (2004). Farmers perception of the Striga problem and its control in Northern Nigeria. Experiential Agriculture. 40, 215-232
  19. Ferrell, J.A, Macdonald G.E. and Brecke B.J. (2006). Weed management in corn. University of Florida IFAS
  20. Extension SS-AGR-02.
  21. Gill, M.K., Gaur B.L. and Rao D.S., (1997). Comparative efficacy of pre-and post emergence herbicides in controlling weeds in rainy-season maize (Zea mays). Indian J. Agron., 36: 261-262.
  22. Giri, A.N., Bhosle R.H. and Shelke D.K. (1997). Weed management in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) – groundnut (Arachis hypogea) sequence. Indian J. Agron., 43:50-56.
  23. Goel, A.K., Behera D., Behra B.K., Mohanty S.K. and Nanda S.K. (2008). Development and ergonomic evaluation of manually operated weeder for dryland crops. Agricultural Engineering International e-Journal Vol. X.
  24. Gregory, J.R.K., Stephen C.M. and Martin A.R. (1994). Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and green foxtail (Setaria viridis) response to corn (Zea mays) hybrid. Weed Tech., 14: 304-311.
  25. Grichar, W.J., Besler B.A., Brewer K.D, (2005). Weed control and grain sorghum response to post-emergence application of atrazine / pendimethalin and trifluralin. Weed Tech 19, 999-1003.
  26. Guar, B.L., Rao D.S. and Kaushik M.K. (1991). Comparative efficacy of pre – and post emergence herbicides in controlling weeds in rainy – season maize (Zea mays). Indian J. Agron 36: 261 – 262.
  27. Hennigh, D. S., Al-Khatib K., and Tuinstra M. R.(2010).Post emergence weed control in acetolactate-synthase resistant grain sorghum. Weed Tech., 24:3, 219-225.
  28. Hoverstad, I.R., Gunsolus J.L., Johson G.A. and King R.P. (2004). Risk efficiency criteria for evaluating economics of herbicides based weed management system in corn. Weed Tech 18: 687-697.
  29. Iqbal, S., (1994). Screening of different herbicides for controlling weeds in wheat crop. M.Sc (Hons) Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.
  30. Jadhao, R. K. and Sarika Kharkar Patil M. N (2001). Effect of continuous application of Organics and inorganics on the yield and nutrient uptake in sorghum-wheat crop sequence. Annals. P. Physiology, 13:2. 156-159.
  31. Jones P.A., Blair A.M. and Orson J. (1996). Mechanical damage to kill weeds. Proceedings Second International Weed Congress, Copenhagen,Denmark, 949-954.
  32. Kalyanasundaram, D., Kuppusamy, G., (1999). Effect of different weed control methods on the performance of sorghum and soil health.IN: Abstracts, 8th Bennial Conference,Indian Society of Weed Science, February, 5- 7,Varanasi,India,India, 37.
  33. Khosla, S. N. and Sobti S. N. (1981). Effective control of Parthenium hysterophorus.L. Pesticides., 15: 4. pp. 18–19.
  34. Kondep S.M., A.R Rao. and G. Venkateswara Reddy. (1990). Studies on the effect of planting patterns and weeding intervels in sorghum based intercropping system on weed infestation on yield. Madras Agric. J. 77: 64- 69.
  35. Kumar, A. and K.S. Thakur. (2005). Influence of intercripping and weed control measures and weed control and productivity of rainfed maize (Zea mays). Indian J. Weed Sci., 37: 65-67.
  36. Kushwah, S.S. and Kushwaha H.S. (2001). Influence of weed control methods on growth, yield and economics of rainfed soybean (Glysine max) at farmer’s field. Indian J. Weed Sci., 46: 511-515.
  37. Lemerle, D., B. Verbeek and B.Orchard, (2001). Ranking the ability of wheat varieties to compete with Lolium rigidum Weed Res., 41, 197 -209.
  38. Lidhoo, C.K. (2004). Evaluation of weeding tools for dryland crops. J. of Res, SKUASI-J, 3: 78-85.
  39. Melesse Temesgen, Kidane Georgis, Shilima Goda and Hiurt Abebe. (2001). Development and evaluation of tillage implements for maize production in the dryland areas of Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of Seventh Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference, Ethiopia. 11th-15th February, 2001.308-312.
  40. Mundra S.L., Vyas A.K. and Maliwall P.L. (2003). Effect of weed and nutrient management on weed growth and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.). Indian J. Weed Sci., 35:57-61.
  41. Munier- lamy C, Feuvrier M.P. and Chone T. (2002). Degradation of c 14-Atrazine bound residues in brown soil and Rendzinz Fractions. J. Environ. Qual., 31: 241-247.
  42. Mynavathi, V.S. (2007). Evaluation of manually operated weeders in irrigated maize. M.Sc. (Ag). Thesis. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. Coimbatore. Tamil Nadu, India.
  43. Padole. Y.B.(2007). Performance of rotary power weeder. Agric. Engg. Today., 31: 30-33.
  44. Pandey A.K., Prakash V., Singh R.D. and Mani V.P. (2001). Integrated weed management in maize (Zea mays). Indian J. Agron., 46: 260-265.
  45. Petter, F.A., Pacheco L.P., Alcantara Neto F., Zuffo A. M, Procopio S.O and Almeida F.A. (2011). Agronomic performance of sorghum as a response to 2,4-D application dosage and times..Planta Daninha. 29: Especial, 1091-1098.
  46. Ponnuswamy, K., Sankaran N. and Thiyagarajan T.M. (2002). Weed management in sorghum based intercropping system. Madras J. Agric., 89: 541-543.
  47. Pullan, D.W.M and Cowell P.A. (1997). An evaluation of the performance of mechanical weedings mechanisms for use in high speed inter-row weeding of arable crops. J. Agric. Engg. Res., 67: 27-34.
  48. Rafey. A. and Prasad K. (1995). Influence of weed control measures on weed growth, yield and yield attributes of rainfed groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). Indian J. Agric. Sci., 65: 42-45.
  49. Ramakrishna, A., Ong, C.K., Reddy, S.L.N.,(1991). Studies on integrated weed management in sorghum. Trop.Pest Management. 37, 159-161.
  50. Ramakrishna, A. (2003) Integrated weedmanagement improves grain sorghum growth and yield on Vertisols. Tropi Agric. 80: 1, 48-53.
  51. Ramesh, G. (1998). Effect of herbicide application technologies on the yield and associated weeds of rainfed maize (Zea mays, L.) and soil ecosystem. M.Sc Ag Thesis. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
  52. Ranpise, S.A. and Patil B.T. (2001). Effect of herbicides on weed intensity and yield of summer onion cv. N-2-4-1. Pestology, 25: 59-60.
  53. Rao, A.S., Ratnam M. and Reddy T.Y. (2007). Weed management in zero-till sown maize. Indian J. Weed Sci., 41: 46-49.
  54. Rapparini, G. (2000). Weed control in maize and sorghum. Informatore Agrario. 56:8, pp. 35-42.
  55. Rapparini, G. (2002). Pre - and post-emergence weed control in maize and sorghum. Informatore Agrario. 56:8. 61-78.
  56. Rathod, S.S., Zade, K.K. and Jawale, S.A. (2010). Integrated weed management in Kharif sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Intl. J. Forestry Crop Improv., 1:109-111.
  57. Rodrigues, A. C. P. and Costa N. V., Cardoso L. A., Campos C. F, Martins D. (2010). Planta Daninha 28:1, 23-31.
  58. Rosales Robles, E.,Sanchez de la Cruz. R., Salinas Garcia J.R., Pecina Quintero V., Loera Gallardo J. and Esqueda Esquivel V.A.(2006). Critical period of competition of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) in grain sorghum. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana. 29: 1, 47-53.
  59. Rosales Robles, E., Sanchez de la Cruz. R., Salinas Garcia J.R.(2005). Critical period of competition of wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in grain sorghum. Agrociencia (Montecillo). 39: 2, pp. 205-210.
  60. Rout, D. and Satapathy M.R. (1996). Chemical weed control in rainfed maize (Zea mays). Indian J. Agron., 41(1): 51-53.
  61. Sarkar, P. (1997) First International Confereance of Parthenium Management, Dharwad, Karnataka, 111-113..
  62. Satheeshkumar , N., Thukkaiyannan P., Ponnuswamy K., and Santhi P. (2011). Effect of sowing and weed management methods and intercrops on weed control and grain yield of sorghum under intercropping situation. Crop Research (Hisar).41: 1/3, 46-51.
  63. Scivittaro, W. B. Santos, G. G. dos Farias, D. G. de Andres, A. Castilhos, R. M. V. (2005). Nitrogen and atrazine rates in sorghum grown in lowland areas. Revista Brasileira de Agrociencia.. 11: 3, pp. 315-321.22.
  64. Shah, S.N., Shroff J.C., Patel R.H. and Usadadiya V.P. (2011). Influence of intercropping and weed management practices on weed and yields of maize. Intl. J Sci., and Nature: 2: 47-50.
  65. Sharifi, R., Javanshir S. A., Shakiba M.R., Golozani K.G., Mohammadi A., and Sharifi R.S. (2006). Effects of sorghum densities and different interference periods on corn growth analysis. BIABAN. 11: 1,20.
  66. Sharma, R.P., Dadheech R.C., and Jat L.N. (2000). Effect of atrazine and nitrogen on weed growth and yield of sorghum [Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench]. Indian J. Weed Sci., 32:1/2, 96-97.
  67. Shelke, D.K., Bhosle R.H., Jadhav N.S. and Sanker J.K. (1986). Studies on crop weed completion in Kharief sorghum. Annual Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science, January, 28- 29.Jaipur.
  68. Sher Singh and Rajput A.L. (1995). Chemical weed control in winter maize (Zea mays). Haryana. J. Agron., 11(20): 103-107.
  69. Shinde, S.H., Kolage A.K. and Bhilare R.L. (2001). Effect of weed control on growth and yield of maize. J. Maharastra Agric.Univ., 26: 212-213.
  70. Sibuga, K.P. and Bandeen J.D. (1978). An evaluation of green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) competition in corn. Abstracts of Weed Science Society of America, p.66.
  71. Singh, H. and S. Singh. (2009). Weed management and soil micro organisms studies in irrigated summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Indian J. Weed Sci., 41: 103-107.
  72. Sinha, S.P., Prasad S.M. and Singh S.J. (2000). Effect of integrated weed management on growth and yield attributes and yield of winter maize. J. Applied Bio., 10:158-162.
  73. Skrzypczak, W., Waligora H.,and P. Szulc. (2008).Possibilities of mechanical limitation of weed infestation in maize and sorghum cultivation in ecological agriculture. Journal of Research and Applications in Agricultural Engineering,53: 4,67-70.
  74. Solaimalai, A and Muthusankaranarayanan A.(1999). Effect of intercropping and weed management practices on growth and yield of irrigated sorghum Madras Agric J., 86: 43-45.
  75. Solaimalai, A and Muthusankaranarayanan A. (2000). Effect of sorghum and weed management practices on leguminous intercrops. Madras Agric J., 87: 7/9,490-491.
  76. Sumathi, V., V. Chandrika, A. Muneendra babu and A.V. Nagavani. (2000). Integrated weed management in rainfed groundnut. Indian J. Agron., 45:765-770.
  77. Sundari A and R.M. Kathiresan, (2002). Integrated weedmanagement in irrigated sorghum. Indian. J. Weed Sci.,.34: 3/ 4,313-315.
  78. Sundari, A. and Kumar S. M. S., (2002). Crop-weed competition in sorghum. Indian.J. Weed Sci., 34:3/4, pp. 311-312.
  79. State of Indian Agriculture – 2012-2013
  80. Tahir, M., Javed M.R., Tanveer A., Nadeem M.A., Wasaya A., Bukhari S.A.H. and Rehman J. U. (2009). Effect of different herbicides in weeds, growth and yield of spring planted maize (Zea mays L.). Pakistan J. Life Soc. Sci., 7: 168-174.
  81. Tajuddin, A. (2006). Design, development and testing of engine operated weeder. Agric. Engg. Today, 30:15-17.
  82. Tamado, T., L. Ohlander and P. Milberg. (2002). Interference by the wee Parthenium hysterophorus L. With grain sorghum: influence of weed density and duration of competition. Int. J. Pest Manag. 48: 183-188.
  83. Thakur, D.R. (1994). Weed management in intercropping system based on maize (Zea mays) under rainfed hill conditions. Indian J. Agron., 39: 203 – 206.
  84. Tiwari, V.K. and Datta R.K.(1985). Evaluation of working width of blades from ergonomic considerations. In: Proceedings of Silver Jubilee Convention of First S.A.E., Vol.1 (Farm power and machinery), held on Oct. 29-31.
  85. Tomalin, C.D.S. (1997). The pesticide manual – A world compendium, British Crop Protection Council., pp: 1599.
  86. Varshney, J.G.( 1990). Efficacy of atrazine with adjuvants on weed suppression in maize in mid hills of Meghalaya. Indian J.Weed Sci., 22 (1&2); 27-31.
  87. Vinodkumar, S. S, Tripathi L. Sachan H. K. and Shukla D. K. (2008). Weed dynamics and green fodder yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as influenced by various weed management practices. Envir. Eco., 26: 4B,1993-1995.
  88. Walker, S.R., Medd, R.W., Robinson, G.R. and Cullis, B.R. (2002). Improved management of Avena ludoviciana and Phalaris paradoxa with more densely sown wheat and less herbicide. Weed Res., 42, 257-70.
  89. Wanjari, S. S. Mahakulkar, B. V. Potdukhe, N. R. Ingle, R. W. (1996). Integrated weed management in sorghum. PKV Res J., 20: 1, 74-75.
  90. Wu, Han Wen, Walker, S., Osten, V., Taylor, I., Sindal, B., (2004). Emergence and persistence of barnyard grasses (Echinochloa colona (L) Link) and its management options in sorghum. Weed Management: Balancing people, Planet, profit. Proceedings of 14th Australian Agronomy Congress, 6-9 September, pp.583-541.
  91. Yadav, R and Pund S. (2007).Development and ergonomic evaluation of manual weeder Agricultural Engineering international: CIGR Ejournal. Vol. IX.
  92. Yadav, S.K. Bhan,V.M.and Asok Kumar (1986). Studies on removal of nutrients by weeds and their control in groundnut. Indian J. Agron., 31: 177-180
  93. Yadhuraju, N.T, Bhan V.M. and Saraswat V.N. (2003). Mechanical weed control methods. Indian Council of Agricultural Research Publications, New Delhi. pp. 67-69.

Editorial Board

View all (0)